Imperial Cleaning

East Germany

Lieutenant General of Cavalry in the Prussian army.

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Dresden Hauptbahnhof and Dresden-Neustadt railway station. The most important railway lines run to Berlin, Prague, Leipzig and Chemnitz. A commuter train system Dresden S-Bahn operates on three lines alongside the long-distance routes.

Dresden Airport is the city's international airport , located at the north-western outskirts of the town. Its infrastructure has been improved [ when? Dresden has a large tramway network operated by Dresdner Verkehrsbetriebe , the municipal transport company. Because the geological bedrock does not allow the building of underground railways , [ citation needed ] the tramway is an important form of public transport. The transparent factory is located not far from the city centre next to the city's largest park.

The districts of Loschwitz and Weisser Hirsch are connected by the Dresden Funicular Railway , which has been carrying passengers back and forth since Dresden is the capital of a German Land federal state.

It is home to the Landtag of Saxony [90] and the ministries of the Saxon Government. The controlling Constitutional Court of Saxony is in Leipzig. Most of the Saxon state authorities are located in Dresden. Dresden is home to the Regional Commission of the Dresden Regierungsbezirk , which is a controlling authority for the Saxon Government. It has jurisdiction over eight rural districts , two urban districts and the city of Dresden.

Like many cities in Germany, Dresden is also home to a local court, has a trade corporation and a Chamber of Industry and Trade and many subsidiaries of federal agencies such as the Federal Labour Office or the Federal Agency for Technical Relief. Dresden is home to a military subdistrict command, but no longer has large military units as it did in the past. Dresden is the traditional location for army officer schooling in Germany, today carried out in the Offizierschule des Heeres.

Until famous enterprises like Dresdner Bank left Dresden in the communist era to avoid nationalisation , Dresden was one of the most important German cities, an important industrial centre of the German Democratic Republic. After reunification enterprises and production sites broke down almost completely as they entered the social market economy , facing competition from the Federal Republic of Germany.

After a completely new legal system and currency system was introduced and infrastructure was largely rebuilt with funds from the Federal Republic of Germany. Dresden as a major urban centre has developed much faster and more consistently than most other regions in the former German Democratic Republic, but it still faces many social and economic problems stemming from the collapse of the former system, including high unemployment levels.

Thanks to the presence of public administration centres, a high density of semi-public research institutes and an extension of publicly funded high technology sectors, the proportion of highly qualified workers Dresden is again among the highest in Germany and by European criteria. Dresden regularly ranks among the best ten bigger cities in Germany to live in.

Silicon Saxony Saxony's semiconductor industry was built up in Their factories attract many suppliers of material and cleanroom technology enterprises to Dresden. The pharmaceutical sector developed at the end of the 19th century. A third traditional branch is that of mechanical and electrical engineering. There are around one hundred bigger hotels in Dresden, many of which cater in the upscale range. The media sector is not particularly strong in Dresden.

Dresden has a broadcasting centre belonging to the Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk. The Dresdner Druck- und Verlagshaus Dresden printing plant and publishing house produces part of Spiegel 's print run , amongst other newspapers and magazines. Dresden is home to a number of renowned universities, but among German cities it is a more recent location for academic education. Other universities include the "Hochschule für Kirchenmusik", a school specialising in church music , the "Evangelische Hochschule für Sozialarbeit", an education institution for social work.

Dresden hosts many research institutes , some of which have gained an international standing. The institutes are well connected among one other as well as with the academic education institutions.

Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf is the largest complex of research facilities in Dresden, a short distance outside the urban areas. It focuses on nuclear medicine and physics. The Max Planck Society focuses on fundamental research.

The Fraunhofer Society hosts institutes of applied research that also offer mission-oriented research to enterprises. With eleven institutions or parts of institutes, Dresden is the largest location of the Fraunhofer Society worldwide. The Leibniz Community is a union of institutes with science covering fundamental research and applied research.

In Dresden there are three Leibniz Institutes. The " Leibniz Institute for Polymer Research " [99] and the " Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research " [] are both in the material and high-technology domain, while the "Leibniz Institute for Ecological and Regional Development" is focused on more fundamental research into urban planning.

Dresden has [ when? From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Dresden disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

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City Council of Dresden. List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany. Dresden New Town Hall. Statistisches Landesamt des Freistaates Sachsen in German. Archived from the original on 31 January Retrieved 25 February Archived 19 August at the Wayback Machine..

Retrieved 24 April Alle Städtenamen und deren Geschichte. On February 15, B's dropped Thousands of bombs destroy Dresden". Retrieved 5 May The Bombing of Dresden. Archived from the original on 29 April Retrieved 27 June Retrieved 4 July Location, area, geographical data Archived 6 May at the Wayback Machine. Archived from the original on 22 October Retrieved 30 March Retrieved 19 June Einwohnerzahl Archived 12 September at the Wayback Machine.

Retrieved 7 May Retrieved 17 May Population Archived 6 May at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 5 January Archived from the original on 12 March Retrieved 27 May Archived from the original on 5 February Retrieved 24 July Archived from the original on 13 October Retrieved 29 June Retrieved 26 February Retrieved 16 December Landeshauptstadt Dresden, Büro der Oberbürgermeisterin.

Archived from the original on 28 January Retrieved 7 January Archived from the original on 6 August Retrieved 6 August Archived from the original on 12 April Official portal of City of Skopje. Grad Skopje - - , www. Archived from the original on 24 October Hamburg's official website [1]. Archived from the original on 28 July Retrieved 12 March Museums Archived 19 October at the Wayback Machine.

Retrieved 21 August Monument preservation Archived 29 January at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 29 November Archived from the original on 16 December Retrieved 21 May Archived from the original on 2 January Retrieved January 21, Bibliography of the history of Dresden.

The loss of church members also made it clear to the leaders of the church that they had to come into some kind of dialogue with the state. The intentions behind the change of attitude varied from a traditional liberal Lutheran acceptance of secular power to a positive attitude toward socialist ideas. Manfred Stolpe became a lawyer for the Brandenburg Protestant Church in before taking up a position at church headquarters in Berlin.

In he helped found the Bund der Evangelischen Kirchen in der DDR BEK , where he negotiated with the government while at the same time working within the institutions of this Protestant body. He won the regional elections for the Brandenburg state assembly at the head of the SPD list in Stolpe remained in the Brandenburg government until he joined the federal government in Apart from the Protestant state churches German: The Moravian Church also had its presence as the Herrnhuter Brüdergemeine.

The smaller Roman Catholic Church in eastern Germany had a fully functioning episcopal hierarchy that was in full accord with the Vatican. During the early postwar years, tensions were high. The Catholic Church as a whole and particularly the bishops resisted both the East German state and Marxist ideology. The state allowed the bishops to lodge protests, which they did on issues such as abortion.

After the Church did fairly well in integrating Catholic exiles from lands to the east which mostly became part of Poland and in adjusting its institutional structures to meet the needs of a church within an officially atheist society.

This meant an increasingly hierarchical church structure, whereas in the area of religious education, press, and youth organisations, a system of temporary staff was developed, one that took into account the special situation of Caritas , a Catholic charity organisation.

By , therefore, there existed a Catholic subsociety that was well adjusted to prevailing specific conditions and capable of maintaining Catholic identity. With a generational change in the episcopacy taking place in the early s, the state hoped for better relations with the new bishops, but the new bishops instead began holding unauthorised mass meetings, promoting international ties in discussions with theologians abroad, and hosting ecumenical conferences.

The new bishops became less politically oriented and more involved in pastoral care and attention to spiritual concerns. The government responded by limiting international contacts for bishops. East Germany's culture was strongly influenced by communist thought and was marked by an attempt to define itself in opposition to the west, particularly West Germany and the United States.

Critics of the East German state have claimed that the state's commitment to Communism was a hollow and cynical tool [ who? However, Pence and Betts argue, the majority of East Germans over time increasingly regarded the state's ideals to be hollow, though there was also a substantial number of East Germans who regarded their culture as having a healthier, more authentic mentality than that of West Germany.

GDR culture and politics were limited by the harsh censorship. The Puhdys and Karat were some of the most popular mainstream bands in East Germany. Like most mainstream acts, they appeared in popular youth magazines such as Neues Leben and Magazin. Schlager , which was very popular in the west, also gained a foothold early on in East Germany, and numerous musicians, such as Gerd Christian , Uwe Jensen , and Hartmut Schulze-Gerlach gained national fame. From to , an international schlager festival was held in Rostock , garnering participants from between 18 and 22 countries each year.

Bands and singers from other Communist countries were popular, e. Czerwone Gitary from Poland known as the Rote Gitarren. West German television and radio could be received in many parts of the East. The Western influence led to the formation of more "underground" groups with a decisively western-oriented sound. Additionally, hip hop culture reached the ears of the East German youth. With videos such as Beat Street and Wild Style , young East Germans were able to develop a hip hop culture of their own.

The entire street culture surrounding rap entered the region and became an outlet for oppressed youth. The government of the GDR was invested in both promoting the tradition of German classical music , and in supporting composers to write new works in that tradition. The birthplace of Johann Sebastian Bach — , Eisenach , was rendered as a museum about him, featuring more than three hundred instruments, which, in , received some 70, visitors.

In Leipzig, the Bach archive contains his compositions and correspondence and recordings of his music. Governmental support of classical music maintained some fifty symphony orchestras, such as Gewandhausorchester and Thomanerchor in Leipzig; Sächsische Staatskapelle in Dresden; and Berliner Sinfonie Orchester and Staatsoper Unter den Linden in Berlin.

East German theatre was originally dominated by Bertolt Brecht , who brought back many artists out of exile and reopened the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm with his Berliner Ensemble. After Brecht's death, conflicts began to arise between his family around Helene Weigel and other artists about Brecht's heritage. In the s, he became the Intendant of the Volksbühne often working with Heiner Müller. In the s, a parallel theatre scene sprung up, creating theatre "outside of Berlin" in which artists played at provincial theatres.

Theatre and cabaret had high status in the GDR, which allowed it to be very pro-active. This often brought it into confrontation with the state. Benno Besson once said, "In contrast to artists in the west, they took us seriously, we had a bearing. The Friedrichstadt-Palast in Berlin is the last major building erected by the GDR, making it an exceptional architectural testimony to how Germany overcame of its former division.

Here, Berlin's great revue tradition lives on, today bringing viewers state-of-the-art shows. The East German industry became known worldwide for its productions, especially children's movies Das kalte Herz , film versions of the Brothers Grimm fairy tales and modern productions such as Das Schulgespenst. The film industry was remarkable for its production of Ostern , or Western-like movies. Native Americans in these films often took the role of displaced people who fight for their rights, in contrast to the American westerns of the time, where Native Americans were often either not mentioned at all or are portrayed as the villains.

Yugoslavians were often cast as the Native Americans because of the small number of Native Americans in Europe. He became an honorary Sioux chief when he visited the United States in the s, and the television crew accompanying him showed the tribe one of his movies.

American actor and singer Dean Reed , an expatriate who lived in East Germany, also starred in several films. These films were part of the phenomenon of Europe producing alternative films about the colonization of America. Cinemas in the GDR also showed foreign films. Czechoslovak and Polish productions were more common, but certain western movies were shown, though the numbers of these were limited because it cost foreign exchange to buy the licences.

Further, movies representing or glorifying capitalist ideology were not bought. Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, several movies depicting life in the GDR have been critically acclaimed. Go for Zucker by Dani Levi. Each film is heavily infused with cultural nuances unique to life in the GDR. East Germany was very successful in the sports of cycling , weight-lifting , swimming, gymnastics, track and field, boxing , ice skating , and winter sports. The success is attributed to the leadership of Dr.

Manfred Hoeppner which started in the late s. Another supporting reason was doping in East Germany , especially with anabolic steroids, the most detected doping substances in IOC -accredited laboratories for many years.

Another factor for success was the furtherance system for young people in GDR. Sport teachers at school were encouraged to look for certain talents in children ages 6 to 10 years old. For older pupils it was possible to attend grammar schools with a focus on sports for example sailing, football and swimming.

This policy was also used for talented pupils with regard to music or mathematics. Sports clubs were highly subsidized, especially sports in which it was possible to get international fame. For example, the major leagues for ice hockey and basketball just included 2 teams each. Football was the most popular sport. Club football teams such as Dynamo Dresden , 1. Many East German players such as Matthias Sammer and Ulf Kirsten became integral parts of the reunified national football team.

Other sports enjoyed great popularity like figure skating, especially because of sportspeople like Katarina Witt. Television and radio in East Germany were state-run industries; the Rundfunk der DDR was the official radio broadcasting organisation from until unification.

Reception of Western broadcasts was widespread. By the mids, East Germany possessed a well-developed communications system. There were approximately 3. An unusual feature of the telephone network was that, in most cases, direct distance dialing for long-distance calls was not possible. Although area codes were assigned to all major towns and cities, they were only used for switching international calls.

Instead, each location had its own list of dialing codes with shorter codes for local calls and longer codes for long-distance calls. After unification, the existing network was largely replaced, and area codes and dialing became standardised.

In East Germany inaugurated the operation of a ground-based radio station at Fürstenwalde for the purpose of relaying and receiving communications from Soviet satellites and to serve as a participant in the international telecommunications organization established by the Soviet government, Intersputnik.

In this state, each person had a place. All children could attend school free of charge, they received vocational training or studied, and were guaranteed a job after training. Work was more than just a means to earn money. Men and women received equal pay for equal work and performance. Equality for women was not just on paper. Care for children and the elderly was the law. Medical care was free, cultural and leisure activities affordable. Social security was a matter of course.

We knew no beggars or homelessness. There was a sense of solidarity. People felt responsible not only for themselves, but worked in various democratic bodies on the basis of common interests. German historian Jürgen Kocka in summarized the consensus of most recent scholarship:.

Conceptualizing the GDR as a dictatorship has become widely accepted, while the meaning of the concept dictatorship varies. Massive evidence has been collected that proves the repressive, undemocratic, illiberal, nonpluralistic character of the GDR regime and its ruling party. East Germans find 'Wessis' arrogant and pushy, West Germans think the 'Ossis' are lazy good-for-nothings.

Unemployment and homelessness, which had been minimal during the communist era, grew and quickly became widespread; this, as well as the closures of countless factories and other workplaces in the east, fostered a growing sense that East Germans were being ignored or neglected by the federal government.

These and other effects of unification led many East Germans to begin to think of themselves more strongly as "East" Germans rather than as simply "Germans". In many former GDR citizens this produced a longing for some aspects of the former East Germany, such as full employment and other perceived benefits of the GDR state, termed " Ostalgie " a blend of Ost "east" and Nostalgie "nostalgia" and depicted in the Wolfgang Becker film Goodbye Lenin!

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from German Democratic Republic. For other uses, see GDR disambiguation. This article is about the country that existed from to For the historical eastern provinces, see Former eastern territories of Germany.

For the modern east of Germany, see New states of Germany. For a group of extinct Germanic languages, see East Germanic languages. Proletarier aller Länder, vereinigt Euch! Workers of the world, unite! Auferstanden aus Ruinen English: The territory of the German Democratic Republic from its creation on 7 October until its dissolution on 3 October East German mark — , officially named: The initial flag of East Germany adopted in was identical to that of West Germany. In , the East German government issued a new version of the flag bearing the national emblem, serving to distinguish East from West.

France , United Kingdom and the United States. History of East Germany. Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to People's Socialist Republic of Albania to Somali Democratic Republic to People's Republic of China to Forest Brothers in Lithuania in Latvia in Estonia. Part of a series on the. Reunification New federal states. Die Wende and German reunification. Politics of East Germany.

Class struggle Class consciousness Classless society Collective leadership Common ownership Commune Communist society Free association From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs Gift economy Proletarian internationalism Stateless society Workers' self-management World revolution. Communist state Communist party Communist revolution Communist symbolism History of communism.

Constitution of East Germany. Administrative divisions of East Germany. Border Troops of the German Democratic Republic. Conscientious objection in East Germany. Group of Soviet Forces in Germany. Economy of East Germany. State atheism and Irreligion in Germany. Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Berlin. Culture of East Germany. This section needs additional citations for verification.

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Towards a Global Community of Historians: Berghahn Books, , pp. The pattern has "undulating outlines and a pair of incised parallel lines, square bowls, the overall proportions are reminiscent of much earlier flatware designs, as the name Old Danish implies" Georg Jensen, A Tradition of Splendid Silver, page The serving spoon is medium sized, the gravy ladle has a deep bowl, and the elegant meat fork has 2 tines.

All 3 items are clearly hallmarked "Georg Jensen Sterling Denmark", the mark used after The Old Danish pattern was designed in by Harald Nielsen, the Artistic Director who took over from Jensen on his death, "his flatware designs Pyramid and Old Danish remain Jensen favorites page 57 book above. A rare solid silver version of the Voortrekker Aandenking memorial - bowl, in grade silver.

The circular bowl with foot is well modeled, with ox wagons on trek, with Boer farmer on horse, cattle in the foreground and mountains in the background, framed by trees. The other image is of the Voortrekker Monument in Pretoria, and in between are two lit candles in a candlestick, surrounded by chains, with Zulu shields above and ox horns below.

The Voortrekker Aandenking bowls were made in a variety of materials, including porcelain, brass and silver plate, the solid silver variant is quite rare. Another example can be see A pair of Arts and Crafts antique silver serving spoons, with raised shell finial and planished hand hammered bowls, both the front and the back of the bowls.

These are good quality, a pleasing weight, and a useful size for use. The hallmarks are clear on both spoons, and include a registration number, indicating Atkin Brothers protected the design.

The pouring lip is broad, and the jug sits on a circular foot. The hallmarks are excellent. A similar beaker, made by Sarah Jones in with applied cast silver mouse on wheatsheaf, can be seen on the Styles silver website www.

A lovely antique silver and enamel vesta case, with a circular dog enamel, we guess a border collie assistance welcome, thanks! The vesta is quite small, rectangular in shape, and is engraved with scrolling foliage, it also has a silver suspension ring, which is also hallmarked. The hallmarks are small but clear, in the usual position on the rim of the vesta case. Two early Georgian silver Hanoverian tablespoons, engraved with the Davy family crest.

The spoons both have a strong front rib and double drop, both features of early Hanoverians. Both are clearly engraved with original armorials for the Davy family of Beckley, Sussex, on the back of the spoons spoons were displayed bowl down during this period. The crest is described as "sable a fess or between three cinquefoils argent, the lozenge is tied at the top with a lovers knot that denotes the arms of a spinster", see heraldic report which accompanies these spoons.

The spoons probably belonged to an unmarried daughter of the Davy family of Beckley, Sussex. The first spoon has clear hallmarks, including WH makers mark for William Hunter, and date letter i for The second spoon has squashed marks, but the makers mark JL for Jeremiah Lee is clear.

A rare Regency rose pattern punch ladle, this is a beautiful ladle. The ladle is gilded, and has an engraved rams head family crest on the back.

The ladle is the shape of a soup ladle, but is noticeably smaller, hence our description as a punch ladle bowl is 7. The pattern is double struck, and has good detail, with trailing roses, and Anthemion heel Pickford, Silver Flatware, pg The hallmarks are clear, the makers mark is slightly obscured, but the Script H used by Hayne is identifiable.

Jonathan Hayne was freed in , he had a flourishing business, and was Prime Warden in , he died in Pickford describes the Rose pattern as rare, and he notes 2 different types different heels. Close examination shows that these spoons have a slightly different design from the one depicted in Pickfords Flatware book pg , with more leaves, so different dies must have been made.

A fabulous quality Royal Fusiliers City of London Regimental sweetheart brooch, with 77 diamonds set in Platinum and 9 carat gold. The grenade has 63 diamonds, the rose has 11 diamonds, gold lettering surrounded by blue enamel, and the crown has 3 diamonds and red enamel.

The pin, clasp and hinge are all solid 9 carat gold, the diamonds are set in platinum. Platinum usage in high end quality jewellery only commenced at the turn of the 20th century during Edwardian times, it's usage had died out by World War II due to expense, so we can date this brooch to either the Boer War or World War I. The first is by Old Newbury Crafters ONC , in the panel antique pattern, with long narrow handle, fiddle handle and teardrop shaped bowl, with a pronounced rim around the back edge of the bowl.

Hammer marks can be seen on the back of the bowl. This spoon is slightly larger, it has an almost heart shaped bowl, and long elegant handle with pointed terminal. Old Newbury Crafters was established in , and still operating today, with 2 silversmiths, using traditional hand forging. The Boston Globe wrote "Paul Revere w A historical antique silver tennis trophy, presented to South Africa's first woman champion, Mabel Grant, in The trophy is the traditional shape, with a beaded knob on the shaft for ease of holding, and matching beaded foot rim.

The trophy is a good weight, the rim has a strengthened lip, so a good quality trophy. The hallmarks are clear. Tennis became a major feature of Colonial life in Durban and Pietermaritzburg source www. A Victorian silver Christening mug, beautifully engraved with roses and flowers, around 2 oval blank cartouches, perfect for engraving. The quality of the engraving is excellent, the design is repeated on both sides.

The handle has 2 scrolls, and the interior is gilded. The hallmarks are clear, including a 6th unofficial mark, possibly a Hennell trademark, a device looking like a cross bar gate. An early Irish silver rat-tail Hanoverian tablespoon, made in by Edward Barrett.

The spoon is lovely quality, a pleasing weight, and in remarkably good condition. The spoon has a deep frontal rib running halfway down the handle, with a strong turn-up, and the traditional rat-tail used before The spoon has original engraved family crest on the back of the spoon spoons were placed face down at this period , the crest featured a raised arm in armour holding a cross slight wear to the cross.

The 3 hallmarks are clear, makers mark EB in oval punch slight wear to B, looks more like EE , date letter gothic K for , and crowned harp, with slight wear but clearly discernable. This spoon predates the Irish Hibernia mark which was introduced in Edward Barrett worked between and , a number of his spoons have survived.

He was freed in and elected Warden in , so he was a prestigious silversmith Collecting Irish Silver by Douglas Bennett, page An unusual Edwardian antique silver sauce or gravy boat, in Modernist style, at first glance it looks out of style with it's age.

The sauce boat is a beautiful shape, tear drop with long elegant spout pours very well , and 3 horn shaped legs, and a very stylish handle, with angular top and curved base.

The handle works well, practical as well as stunning, the angular top fits well with the thumb for easy pouring. This design would have been leading edge when it was produced. The hallmarks are excellent, very clearly struck, so there can be no doubt about the age.

Lee and Wigfull worked between and , Henry Wigfull was the driver of the business, he employed over people in , and won awards at the Melbourne International Exhibition of A pair of Gorham sterling Medallion serving implements, the first a pastry fork and the second a pickle knife. Both have the medallion motif of a classical femaile looking left, with hair braids, the face is strong. Both are pierced with the "tulip cut", the knife also has bright cut engraving.

Both have the original owners initials MMC in Gothic script engraved on the back. Gorham medallion pattern was designed by George Wilkinson in , it is a multi-motif pattern, with 4 different medallion options. Medallion pattern proved popular, it was copied by numerous other firms, but the original Gorham items are most collectable today.

Gorham Corporation, which still exists today, was founded in , they dominated the solid silver flatware market in the USA for years Gorham Silver, page The medallion pattern was even retailed by Tiffany. A rare set of Old English Military Thread and Shell pattern also called Military Shell tablespoons, tableforks and dessertspoons 6 of each. These are good quality and weight, the forks around 89 grammes each, tablespoons 94 grammes and the dessertspoons All 18 have an engraved family crest, a raised lion facing right between 2 horns.

The pattern has the regular Thread and Shell pattern, double struck on both sides , but with scrolls instead of shoulders, as with all Military variants Pickford, Silver Flatware, page Pickford did not illustrate a photographic example of this pattern , a further indication of its rarity. In addition, some pieces carry addit A beautifully modelled solid silver Kudu antelope, with impressive horns, this is very realistic. The kudu is a good size and weight, 2 silver pins on the feet connect it solidly to the wooden base, which has a felt base, this is heavy enough to be a desk paperweight.

The kudu is clearly hallmarked, triangle antelope head mark we believe for Zimbabwe , crescent moon makers mark assistance welcome and standard mark, so slightly lower than sterling grade. Realistic animal sculptures by Patrick Mavros of Zimbabwe are held in high esteem, given the quality of the modelling perhaps this silversmith was trained by Mavros.

A fabulous silver and enamel advertising cigarette case, featuring the famous English cricketer W. The case is rectangular, and is beautifully engraved with scrolling foliage, the quality is excellent. The interior is gilded, and has 2 elaborately pierced and engraved arms, both with hinges.

The oval enamel plaque features Grace walking down the pavilion steps out to bat, carrying his bat, in striped MCC Marylebone Cricket Club hat, and the words "Like Grace" across his chest. Spectators can be seen in the background, the colours are superb. Z is clear on both arms but worn on the case. The image is a very faithful copy of a Colman's Mustard advertising poster, which reads "Colman's Mustard, Like Grace, Heads the Field see picture , circa This is a historic poster and image, as it represents the first time a sportsman had been used to advertise a general product.

Colman's mustard was founded in , and is one of the old An Irish Georgian silver punch ladle, quite small in size, identical in form to the larger punch ladles, we are not sure if it is intended for punch or another liquid bowl very similar in size to Scottish toddy ladles, so perhaps an Irish Whiskey toddy ladle? The bowl is circular, with a substantial pouring lip, and angled handle, the turned wooden handle is stained black. The wooden handle is securely fastened with silver pin, we believe this to be original, with no repairs.

The interior of the bowl has 3 hallmarks, makers mark J. T in rectangular punch, partially struck due to curved surface harp crowned for Dublin, and clearly struck duty mark for William IV, the punch with 4 indents, this punch was only used in and This particular makers mark is interesting, J. T in rectangular punch, it is not recorded by Bennett in his book "Collecting Irish Silver highly recommended , it is recorded by Jackson page preserved on a pewter plate, but listed as unknown.

Amongst the most likely candidat An interesting silver tablefork in the Fiddle pattern, with four pseudo hallmarks, clearly struck, but a bit of a mystery. The fork is clearly Fiddle pattern, but with a very flat handle, so uncomfortable to hold, and probably Colonial in origin.

The hallmarks are well struck, and include pseudo lion passant looking left, pseudo crowned leopards head town mark could be floral device? We have tentatively identified it as Chinese Export, given the style of the pseudo marks, but cannot find this combination of marks or the q in the referrence books. This fork needs further research, all comments and feedback welcome. The ladles have engraved Scottish crests of a hand grasping a dagger issuing from a heart, underneath motto "With Heart and Hand", the engraving on both is crisp and clear only Scottish motto's are above the crest.

The ladles are double struck, with pattern on both sides, and the thread is a double thread. They are good quality ladles, a pleasing weight, and preserved in excellent condition. Toddy ladles are uniquely Scottish, and usually single struck, so this London made double struck pair are unusual. The hallmarks on both are very clear, including makers mark H.

The crest and motto are for the Dudgeon family. A set of 6 Georg Jensen sterling silver coffee or demitasse spoons, in the Akkeleje 77 pattern. The design is repeated on the back and the front, the Akkeleje can be translated as the Columbine flower, these are attractive, dainty spoons. The pattern was introduced in , and was designed by Georg Jensen himself.

An interesting Scottish Provincial silver snuff box, presented in Wick in The box is rectangular, the construction is unusual with a solid wedge shaped lid, overall the box has a hand made feel, slightly crude in finish, the hinge is a little wonky. The box is quite heavy and solidat 82 grammes. The box is engraved with worn scrolls on the lid and front side, this contrasts with the clearer engraving, we assume the box was made earlier and the engraving added later in No hallmarks are present.

This box has an interesting history, Wick was once the world's largest herring fishery port. The harbour was improved and expanded in , James Bremner we assume father to William , the notable Scottish naval architect, completed the work using ingenious near vertical flagstones, still visible today. Between and the harbour was improved again the New Harbour Works by adding a breakwater comprised of stone Jennies, it was designed An antique silver cigar or cheroot case, with an interesting historical engraved inscription, presented to the Honourable Albert Thomas Oliff in This is a good quality case, a very pleasing weight, and is in excellent condition, it does not appear to have been used.

The case is beautifully engraved, with a repeating leaf and scroll pattern. The front cartouche is engraved "A. Oliff" for Albert Thomas Oliff. He emigrated from England to South Africa in , and obviously prospered, in a book entitled "The Honourable A. A family history by E. A set of 6 antique silver egg spoons, in the Fiddle, Thread and Shell pattern. The spoons are fabulous quality, just under 30 grammes each, a pleasure to hold and use. The spoons have the traditional shovel shaped bowls with distinct shoulders, where they meet the stem, so quite different to teaspoons.

A visitor in said "in passing through the galleries, the heavy thuds and ring of anvils, convince one that there is indeed such a trade as An early antique silver vesta case, with an applied cast golfer in full swing.

The vesta is rectangular, with applied strike plate on the bottom of the vesta, the hinge lid has a suspension loop for adding to a chain. Dated this is an early vesta case, most vestas date between and The silver frame is circular, beautifully decorated with pierced flowers and a reeded design, on 3 legs. It is fitted with a copper dish, which is fastened to a wooden mahogany base with 3 feet, by an iron screw with 2 leather circular nuts.

The hallmarks are clear, and include makers mark IVN, Utrecht town mark struck twice grote keur , and date letter Z for A very similar pijpenkomfoor, made by Jacob van Nieucasteel in , is present in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, described as follows "Pijpenkomfoor van zilver op blad van mahoniehout en met binnenbak van rood koper.

Gewelfd en aan beide zijkanten iets oplopend. Vier gebogen poten, Jacob van Nieuwcasteel, ". Van Nieucasteel worked between and , his work is preserved in numerous museums. These items are also found in the Cape made by Dutch silversmiths, referred to as "Tessies". An exceptionally large Danish silver serving spoon, in the Old Danish pattern Dobbelt riflet , wih matching large bowl.

The spoon is double struck pattern on both sides , the pattern has a reeded edge, and the handle is fluted. The weight and quality is very pleasing, heavier and with a larger bowl than other examples we have seen. This type of extremely large serving spoon is unique to Denmark, very suitable for serving a generous portion. The hallmarks include the Danish 3 towers mark with date letter 36 for , assay masters mark JS for Johannes Siggaard who worked between and , and makers mark HS in script for Horsens Solvvarefabriek which was established in We have sold a similar spoon S, and have a similar example S A rare early Cape Silver three pronged fork, in the Hanoverian pattern.

The fork is a lovely shape, long and elegant, with long tines. The fork has makers mark DHS, with some wear but clearly visible, along with a bunch of grapes with vine leaves in a circular punch mark in Cape Silver by Welz.

The fork also has a small owners cross hatch scratch mark next to the makers mark. Three pronged forks were common in the early 18th century, they were gradually replaced by 4 prongs after , perhaps a little later in the colonies, but we believe this dates to the early part of Schmidt's career.

Schmidt arrived in the Cape from Strelitz, Germany, as a soldier in He worked as a sword cutler for the Dutch East India Company, and became a burgher and silversmith in He died in Cape Silver by Welz, pg Heller goes so far to describe Schmidt as a "master craftsman, whose work can be compare The oval shield under the star is vacant, this was originally intended for a family crest or owners initials. This engraving was popular in Ireland between and , the bright cut glitters in candlelight, the Star pattern is unique to Irish silver.

The 6 spoons were made by 4 different makers, and have very slight differences, but the hand engraving was done by the same hand, so we believe the set was assembled by the engraver. All 6 spoons are hallmarked with the Dublin Hibernia and Harp Crowned, no date letters are present as is usual with Irish teaspoons of this period.

D, the last is not legible. Slight differences includethe shapes of the drops, and the bowl shapes, some move oval than others very slight differences. The spoons and forks are fabulous quality, and are in excellent condition. The Straight Tudor pattern is a Gothic Revival pattern, it omits 2 small scroll circular projections on each side of the stem, this differentiates it from the "Tudor" pattern.

All 48 pieces are clearly hallmarked, they also carry the British Registry design number and date chart diamond, which rarely occurs on silver flatware - class I for metal, date letter v for , and R 14 indicating 14 August. The presence of the design mark indicates the Chawner design to protect their innovative design. Services and pieces are rare, building a service would be extremely difficult".

The Tudor and Straight Tudor pattern The crest is beautifully engraved, on the back of the forks in 18th century style, and is described as "on a chapeau, a green salamander surrounded by fire", with the motto above the crest which is only done in Scotland. The crest is under an Earl's coronet, so these forks probably belonged to the 9th or 10th Earl Hamilton.

The hallmarks on both forks are clear, the makers mark is worn but visible. A pair of Georg Jensen Parallel or Relief pattern salad or vegetable servers, in the Parallel pattern, also called Relief 25 pattern. They are a lovely classic Art Deco shape, with rectangular handles with serrated edge design, and the rare additional of 2 circular "wings" midway up the handle.

Both have clear hallmarks, the GJ in rectangle makers mark used between and above "Sterling Denmark". The fork also has additional London import marks for , and the G. J Ld makers mark used by the London Jensen shop. The parallel pattern is interesting most of the smaller items have no "wings", a few of the larger serving items have scroll "wings" , the circular "wings" present here appear to be the rarest addition to the pattern.

The pattern was designed in by Oscar Gundlach-Pedersen, a famous Danish architect who designed a number of important buildings. He was born in , he served as Georg Jensen's last apprentice in , he later returned to the Georg Jensen firm as Manager and Artistic D The spoons have spiral design finials, round bowls and hand hammered "square" handles, they are a pleasure to hold and use.

They are great quality, each individually made by hand by a master craftsman. All 6 spoons have clear hallmarks, and include his trademark "unicorn" KJ mark, along with "Jobst, Sterling and. Jobst was born in Austria in , he served his apprenticeship in Hanau, Germany, his influence was the Bauhaus movement.

He emigrated with his family in from Austria to South Africa to escape Hitler, and became one of Johannesburg's leading silversmiths. He was commissioned by the South African Government to make the official wedding present for Queen Elizabeth in a silver box with diamond necklace , he also made silver for Ernest Oppenheimer cigar box, bowls and dishes.

He died in a car crash in aged 66, in a book of his work was published. Nadine Gordimer Nobel Pri An interesting Zambian Arts and Crafts sterling silver and malachite milk jug, sugarbowl and sugar spoon, made by the most prestigious jewellery company in Zambia.

The milk jug is in the form of a brandy saucepan perhaps it is! The sugar bowl is spherical, with 4 malachite cabochons as decoration, and 3 curved feet and planished body, very similar in style to Liberty Cymric Archibald Knox pieces he used turquoise. Both are hand hammered, with palnished surface, clearly made by hand, the bowl more noticeable than the jug. The spoon is also lovely, with a malachite pearl in dragons foot finial, rounded handle with a knob for grip, also clearly made by hand.

All 3 pieces are hallmarked, firstly with S standard mark, and secondly with makers mark KR in Zambian country outline. Klaus Rygaard is a Danish Jeweller and watchmaker, he emigrated to Lusaka, Zambia in , took over a jewellery store, he later established his own goldsm A Chinese Export silver gravy straining spoon in the Fiddle pattern, also called a dividing spoon, with no engraving. The spoon, which is large serving spoon size, has a vertical divider with vertical slits in the bowl, this is fixed some versions have removable dividers.

The spoon is excellent quality, easily comparable with a top class English Georgian spoon. The hallmarks are excellent, and include pseudo duty mark, pseudo crowned leopards head London town mark pre , pseudo date letter P with cut corners, pseudo lion passant and makers mark WE WE WC.

The Chinese Export silver collectors guide 4th edition, pg says this maker remains unidentified, but was responsible "for an astounding production of silver items, almost all in the European ne A collection of six silver miniature animals, with lovely detail.

The 2 dogs and pair of geese are from Germany, clearly hallmarked and the post moon and crown German standard mark. The snail is Italian, made by Sorini of Arezzo post , the hallmarks are small but clear. The other 5 animals we believe to be older. A pair of Irish Georgian silver tablespoons, with bright cut "Dublin Bow" engraving.

This engraving was popular in Ireland between and , the bright cut glitters in candlelight, the Bow pattern is much rarer than the Dublin Star pattern, the Star, Bow and Prince of Wales Feathers unique to Limerick are unique to Irish silver. The spoons have extended drops, and the hallmarks are very clear on both spoons.

These include date letter X for , Harp Crowned and Hiburnia in rectangular punch first introduced in , and makers mark I. D in oval punch for John Dalrymple, who worked between and www.

John Dalrymple is a rare makers mark, he was not featured in the book "Collecting Irish Silver" by Douglas Bennett, who wrote the definitive guides on Irish silver. An interesting set of 4 Roman reproduction Scottish silver miniature wine cups, perfectly preserved in original box. The wine cups have a circular spherical bowl, attached to a large flat circular base with a rim, by a baluster stem.

They are quite heavy and well made, the quality is excellent. Brook and Son were the leading Scottish silversmiths in the early 20th century, they operated between and from 87 George Street Hamilton and Inches today. These wine cups are reproductions of Roman cups that were part of the Traprain Law treasure hoard, which was discovered by George Pringle at Traprain Law, East Lothian, in The hoard dates from AD, and consisted of pieces, mostly cut up ready for melting.

William Brook was the silversmith involved in conserving and A rare surviving set of 6 Georgian silver table knives, in the Fiddle Thread and Shell pattern, with silver as opposed to steel blades.

The knives are in remarkable condition and are suitable for use. The knives have an engraved family crest, an eagle sable preying on a partridge, under an Earl's crown, with 5 pearls. This is the family crest of the Earls of Onslow, the first Earl George Onslow died in so we assume these knives were made for Thomas Onslow, when he became the 2nd Earl Onslow. The hallmarks are clear on all 6 knives, both on the silver blades and on the handles, including makers mark MB for Moses Brent.

Moses Brent was freed in as a haft-maker, he worked until Grimwade, in his book London Goldsmiths , states "Brent had a virtual monop A fabulous sterling silver soup ladle in the popular Fiddle, Thread and Shell pattern, with engraved Marais Family coat of arms, which is very clear. The ladle is a substantial size and weight, the quality is excellent. The Marais family coat of arms is described as "Azure, a chain sable fesswise, in chief a crescent reversed and a base of two hills vert" - Pama, Heraldry of South African Families, page 53, depicted on Plate 18, no , of the Bell Krynauw Collection.

It dates back to Charles Marais of the farm Plasir de Merle, who arrived in the Cape in , and was "murdered by a Hottentot on the farm in ". Note - we have other matching items with the Marais Family armorial.

A delightful sterling silver Christening plate, the rim decorated with the "Three Bears" of Goldilocks fame walking past engraved trees. The plate is fabulous quality, very heavy, the bears 4 sets of 3 are cast and applied, the detail is lovely. Mappin and Webb was founded in , it still exists today and is one of Britain's most prestigious brands. The was produced just after the end of World War II, silver was very cheap, items from this period are often heavy and superb quality. One of the nicest Christening present a baby could hope to receive.

Note - we have 2 matching items, a mug and bowl, S and S A lovely Georg Jensen sterling silver brooch, pattern number The brooch is rectangular, with a wavy crosshatch bar pattern interspersed with 3 different sizes of silver balls, this has been described as the Jensen "Silver Ball" brooch.

The brooch is clearly hallmarked with interesting marks, 6 distinct punch groupings have been used, so quite unusual to have so many hallmarks on such a small piece. The first 4 marks would have been added in Denmark, the last 2 on import into London in An interesting set of 6 Fiddle pattern tableforks, made in , the year of the battle of Waterloo.

The forks are a pleasing weight, and very good quality, they have a lovely feel. The forks are engraved with an interesting family crest, a leopards head with an arrow in its mouth, this is unusually engraved on the back of the forks. We welcome any assistance with identification of the family crest. A rare sterling silver cooks measuring spoon, we have not encountered one of these before. The spoon has the traditional measuring spoon shape, with circular spherical bowl and long flat handle.

The spoon has an interesting triple rat-tail joining the bowl to the handle. The hallmarks are on the front of the spoon, and are well struck, they could not be better. The detail on the sterling lion passant and London town mark leopards head is fantastic, please see the photographs. A rare Victorian silver Armorial butter spade, where the whole blade displays an engraved family armorial.

The butter spade has a bone handle, the blade is shield shaped as opposed to usual triangular shape, The armorial centre cross with 4 crosses is topped with an engraved lion rampant where the blade joins the handle. The bone handle is connected with a silver ferrule. The hallmarks are well struck and clear. Butter spades are described by Ian Pickford as "quite rare" Silver Flatware pg , we have not seen another armorial example.

A Pair of lovely French silver 2 pronged forks, with beautiful ornate baluster handles in grade silver. The forks are finely decorated with flowers, scrolls and acanthus leaves, on a matted hand engraved textured surface, the central portion have a diamond engraved pattern with grooves, to improve grip.

The steel prongs are long and elegant, sharp and slightly splayed. Both forks have 2 small hallmarks, the French silver Boars Head used for standard 2eme titre on small items, this mark was in use between and , and an additional standard mark. We date these forks to mid 19th century, copies of an earlier style.

A fabulous pair of Cape silver Old English pattern tablespoons, of the very best quality and condition, by one of the top Cape silversmiths. The spoons have strong tips, more Continental than English in style, and an elongated oval drop. The hallmarks are very clear on both, makers mark. JCL in rectangular punch between 2 seven petalled floral devices a combination of marks 76 and 78 in the book Cape Silver by Welz, page This combination of punches by different silversmiths is not unusual in the Cape, where punches were handed down and re-used.

The Lotter family produced over 12 Cape silversmiths between and , their family tree is shown A collection of 18 vintage Stocknagel, or hiking staff medallions, also called walking stick badges , bought by hikers to commemorate a particular hike, and attached to their walking stick.

Each medallion is stamped metal not silver , with 2 holes for pin attachment, with lovely detail as can be seen on the photographs.

Dresden Neues Rathaus 2. Dinkelsbuhl V Ost Heidelberg C Weiss Eibsee Mit Zugspitze Feldberg Schwarzw m UDM Partenkurchen m Gegen die Zugspitze m Seilschwebebahn Zum Kreuzeck m Urfeld Am Walchenzee Richard Wagner Bayreuth Festspilhaus An interesting and rare silver wine label, in Art Nouveau style. Whiskey spelt with an E indicates Irish whiskey, Scottish whisky is spelt without the E.

British Art Nouveau silver wine labels are rare, the book "Wine Labels " by John Salter, states that "perhaps surprisingly, there seems to have been no record of British Art Nouveau labels", further noting the "only Art Nouveau labels known are American and Continental".

A magnificent Victorian cast silver Cherub salt, a replica of a style introduced by Paul de Lamerie. The salt have a cast vine leaf bowl, supported by a cherub with arm outstretched, and two dolphin feet supporting the bowl. This is fabulous quality, and the condition is excellent. The cherub also called amorini and putti, but not cupid as no wings present is naked except for a small loincloth, he is well modelled, note the detail of his hair.

The bowl is a cast vine leaf, also well modelled, and the 2 stylised dolphin feet are copies of those used by Lamerie.

The salt is solid, and stands well on the table, no wobble at all. Traces of original gilding are still visible, especially on the harder to reach areas on the body of the cherub we imagine much of the gilding has been polished off over the years.

The cherub is hollow, the casting hole visible under his bottom. The salt is clearly hallmarked on the vine leaf, with makers mark WS in distinctive punch for William Stocker, along with Victorian duty mark A delightful Cape silver konfyt fork, one of the most charming we have seen.

The fork is in the Hanoverian pattern, with turn up end, it has a form of feather edge engraving at the top of the handle, a long elegant stem much longer than usual , and 3 tines.

It has a v shaped drop, so overall quite different from many Cape silver konfyt forks. The fork is struck with makers mark IVC, this has no dots, the mark is clearly visible but the punch appears a little worn hence the G being seen as a C. We believe this to be one of the marks used by Johann Voight, it is depicted in David Heller's book "History of Cape Silver", page We have now confirmed 3 different IVG marks on Cape silver, which clearly come from 3 different punches, but probably come from 1 silversmith, or family of silversmiths as sons often took over the business of the father, and used the same punches.

The other two IVG marks have different configurations of dots present, see Welz mark with 2 dots, Welz described this maker as "unknow An interesting coin silver American single struck Kings shape Thread and Shell pattern teaspoon, made by Samuel Kirk between and Whilst we describe this as a teaspoon, it is a large and heavy teaspoon, perfect for eating dessert.

Single struck flatware means the pattern is only struck on one side, this only occurred in Scotland in the UK. The spoon has the original owners engraved family crest, a human head with full beard.

The spoon has 3 hallmarks, makers mark S. Kirk in serrated rectangular punch for Samuel Kirk, Baltimore Coat of Arms large oval shield mark quality mark , date letter C for - , these are all well struck and clear.