The better way to sell online
Consider using COD Cash On Delivery for payment if available instead of a check, money order, or credit card when dealing with a company for the first time or when in doubt about their integrity. For purchases from individuals, in addition to COD, a partial payment arrangement e. A commercial supplier should know how to pack and ship fragile merchandise to prevent damage.
However, when ordering from a private individual or if you should need to send laser parts through the mail, or via UPS, Fed-X, Airborn, etc. Four inches of bubble-wrap or styrofoam peanuts on all sides should be considered a minimum with adequate protection between items as well. Insurance is also a worthwhile expense though successfully filing a claim could be an ordeal. Stickers marked 'Fragile' and 'Do Not Drop' may just make the package a more inviting target. Confirm that it behaves as advertised.
I have received HeNe laser power supplies marked with reversed polarity, for example. Honest or otherwise mistakes in packing and labelling do occur. And, of course, DO NOT open the inner packaging or attempt to power an item that was shipped in error as getting a refund may be much more difficult if the seller can honestly claim you damaged something.
I've only had to file an insurance claim once, with the U. The bore of the laser head was fractured, most likely due to the package falling onto a concrete floor.
The power supply was not damaged. From my perspective, the packing was not totally adequate but would have been fine for ordinary handling, even tossing it onto a pile of boxes. Thus, I would have not been terribly unhappy to have the the claim denied with an excuse of "inadequate packing". The estates had previously been held by another English branch of the Acton family. John Acton's grandfather was a member of a younger line of the family which had transferred itself to France and, subsequently, to Italy , but, subsequent to the extinction of the elder branch, he became the patriarch of the family.
She became the mother of John Dalberg-Acton who was born in Naples. He then studied privately at Edinburgh. He was denied entry to the University of Cambridge because he was a Catholic,  and subsequently went to Munich where he studied at the University and resided in the house of Johann Joseph Ignaz von Döllinger , the theologian and forerunner of the Old Catholic Church , with whom he became lifelong friends.
He was a master of the principal foreign languages, and began at an early age to collect a magnificent historical library, which he intended to use to compose a "History of Liberty. Through extensive travels, Acton spent much time in the chief intellectual centres reading the actual correspondence of historical personalities.
In , he was appointed Deputy Lieutenant of Shropshire. In , Acton settled in England, at his country house, Aldenham, in Shropshire. However, Acton was not an active MP, and his parliamentary career came to an end after the general election of , when he headed the Liberal ballot for Bridgnorth near his Shropshire home. Acton defeated Conservative leader Henry Whitmore , who successfully petitioned for a scrutiny of the ballots, and thus retained his own seat and Acton lost his new seat.
After the Reform Act , Acton again contested Bridgnorth, this time reduced to a single seat, in but to no avail. Acton took a great interest in the United States, considering its federal structure the perfect guarantor of individual liberties. During the American Civil War , his sympathies lay entirely with the Confederacy , for their defence of States' Rights against a centralised government that he believed would, by what he thought to be all historical precedent, inevitably turn tyrannical.
His notes to Gladstone on the subject helped sway many in the British government to sympathise with the South. After the South's surrender, he wrote to Robert E. Lee that "I mourn for the stake which was lost at Richmond more deeply than I rejoice over that which was saved at Waterloo," adding that he "deemed that you were fighting battles for our liberty, our progress, and our civilization.
His elevation came primarily through the intercession of Gladstone. Matthew Arnold said that "Gladstone influences all round him but Acton; it is Acton who influences Gladstone. His contributions at once gave evidence of his remarkable wealth of historical knowledge. Though a sincere Roman Catholic, his whole spirit as a historian was hostile to ultramontane pretensions, and his independence of thought and liberalism of view speedily brought him into conflict with the Roman Catholic hierarchy.
As early as August , Cardinal Wiseman publicly censured the Review ; and when in , after Döllinger 's appeal at the Munich Congress for a less hostile attitude towards historical criticism, the pope issued a declaration that the opinions of Catholic writers were subject to the authority of the Roman congregations, Acton felt that there was only one way of reconciling his literary conscience with his ecclesiastical loyalty, and he stopped the publication of his monthly periodical.
He continued, however, to contribute articles to the North British Review , which, previously a Scottish Free Church organ, had been acquired by friends in sympathy with him, and which for some years until , when it ceased publication promoted the interests of a high-class Liberalism in both temporal and ecclesiastical matters.
Acton also did a good deal of lecturing on historical subjects. In the March Rambler , Acton wrote: The Persians, the Greeks, the Romans, and the Teutons are the only makers of history, the only authors of advancement.
Other races possessing a highly developed language, a speculative religion, enjoying luxury and art, attain to a certain pitch of cultivation which they are unable to either communicate or to increase. They are a negative element in the world. In , along with his mentor Döllinger , Acton opposed the moves to promulgate the doctrine of papal infallibility in the First Vatican Council , travelling to Rome to lobby against it, ultimately unsuccessfully.
It was in this context that, in a letter he wrote to scholar and ecclesiastic Mandell Creighton , dated April , Acton made his most famous pronouncement:. But if we might discuss this point until we found that we nearly agreed, and if we do agree thoroughly about the impropriety of Carlylese denunciations and Pharisaism in history, I cannot accept your canon that we are to judge Pope and King unlike other men, with a favourable presumption that they did no wrong.
If there is any presumption it is the other way, against the holders of power, increasing as the power increases. Historic responsibility has to make up for the want of legal responsibility. Power tends to corrupt, and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Great men are almost always bad men, even when they exercise influence and not authority, still more when you superadd the tendency or the certainty of corruption by authority. There is no worse heresy than that the office sanctifies the holder of it.
In there were 2, inhabitants and in , 4, In late the constituent community had 7, inhabitants. During floods, it was once known to run red rot in German. Whereabouts the monastery lay is to this day unknown. Finds, however, confirm that people were settling in what is now Nieder-Roden long before the Christian Era. In the Middle Ages , the surrounding woodlands belonged to the Wildbann Dreieich, a royal hunting forest, one of whose 30 Wildhuben special estates whose owners were charged with guarding the hunting forest was maintained in Nieder-Roden.
Nieder-Roden had another documentary mention in when the Frankish nobleman Erlulf donated all his holdings in Nieder-Roden rotahen inferiore , Ober-Roden rotahen superiore and Bieber to the Lorsch Abbey. In the village became an independent parish, although in the years that followed it still remained in a certain dependency relationship with its former mother parish of Ober-Roden.
Formerly an Eppstein holding, the place belonged from to to the Archbishopric of Mainz and enjoyed great importance as the centre of a tithing area and the seat of a tithe court.
When the Rödermark a communally held parcel of land to which belonged several villages was divided up in , Nieder-Roden received a share of the forest. In , Nieder-Roden passed to the Offenbach district.
From to , the community was in the Dieburg district. In the Rodgaubahn railway with a railway station in Nieder-Roden opened. After the war, Nieder-Roden grew, especially in the s and s from 2, inhabitants to now almost 16, In the course of district reform in Hesse in , the community was transferred from the Dieburg district to the Offenbach district, to which the town of Rodgau also belongs. In there were 66 households. In , people lived in only 29 households. In Nieder-Roden had inhabitants.
In , this had risen to 3, and by the number had reached 11, In late the constituent community had 15, inhabitants. Town council, as the highest political body in Rodgau, is elected every five years by eligible citizens. The municipal election held on 26 March yielded the following results: This has further yielded the following seat apportionment: These two parties are also the ones from which the two full-time members of the town executive come. These are each elected for six-year terms.
This altered the seat apportionment and therefore the majority relationship as follows: Town council furthermore chooses eight of its members to sit on the town executive Magistrat , two full-time and the other six part-time. The mayor, who is directly elected by the citizenry every six years, chairs the executive.
These, however, have only an advisory function at town council, and seats are apportioned according to election results in each constituent community. Political bodies sit in the session chamber at Town Hall, which was completed in and stands in the constituent community of Jügesheim.
Party per bend sinister azure a rose argent surmounted by a heart gules, itself surmounted by a Latin cross sable, gules a wheel spoked of six of the second, surmounting the parting a bend sinister wavy of the second, itself surmounted by five mullets of five of the fourth. In , the then greater community of Rodgau was granted a coat of arms. The German blazon reads: Das Wappen zeigt in Blau und in Rot einen gewellten silbernen Schräglingsbalken, belegt mit fünf Sternen, begleitet oben rechts von einer silbernen Rose mit silbernen Kelchblättern, diese belegt mit einem roten Herzen, dem ein schwarzes Kreuz aufliegt Lutherrose , unten links von einem sechsspeichigen silbernen Mainzer Rad.
This symbolizes the Rodau, which runs through the whole municipal area. The five mullets stars stand for the five constituent communities. This recalls the time when Electoral Mainz succeeded the Lords of Eppstein in all constituent communities in Until , each constituent community had its own coat of arms as a self-administering community. Out of this family grew the Eppstein dynasty, whose arms with three chevronnets are included here in an inescutcheon.
The tinctures silver and red refer to the arms borne by the Archbishops of Mainz, into whose ownership the village was sold in The silver and red here likewise refer to the Wheel of Mainz arms borne by the Archbishops of Mainz. Granted in The churchtower shown in these arms is the one found at the local church, and is interesting from an art-history point of view.
These stand for former feudal overlords. Much as agriculture may have defined life in the formerly self-administering communities until the early 19th century, this changed with creeping industrialization , above all that in Offenbach.
Most farmers took work in the nearby cities of Offenbach and Frankfurt and thereafter ran their farms only as a sideline. Its products — handbags, suitcases, belts, wallets and purses — were made mostly in private homes as a kind of cottage industry. By , this had led to the almost complete disappearance of the farming sideline. In , only eleven farms were still being worked as main income earners, mostly to grow asparagus , and four were still being worked as a sideline. Besides leatherworking, metalworking also locally became a field of endeavour at roughly the same time to supply belt buckles, suitcase handles and suchlike.
Major works were located in Weiskirchen, Jügesheim and Nieder-Roden. In the s the company shifted its production focus to manufacturing porous concrete presicion blocks Plansteine , today known under the name Porit. In the early s, Adam Opel AG chose Dudenhofen as the location for their test centre, which came into service in In the middle of a 4. All together, in mid, there were reported to be 3, businesses in Rodgau, among them 23 supermarkets from the best known chains and 16 hotels with beds.
The trend of shifting from producing industries and crafts to service industries became clear when is compared to In Rodgau, roughly high technology companies are resident.
Dominating the technological field is information and communications technology for aviation and space travel, followed by sensor, measuring, control and analytical technology. Furthermore, production technology, automatic surface finishing , microelectronics and optoelectronics are also represented. Moreover, there were roughly 3, jobs for the self-employed, officials and those marginally employed. Until that time, Rodgau had been served by the Rodgaubahn railway.
There is regular bus service to the railway stations at Nieder-Roden and Jügesheim on the S1 through district buslines to Babenhausen, Seligenstadt , Dietzenbach and Langen and town buslines to Hainhausen, Weiskirchen and Rollwald. Since , the signposted Rodgau-Rundweg has run through fields and woods right round the town.
Special bicycle parking places with stands and lockable rental boxes are to be found at every S-Bahn station. Areas with much reduced traffic with their attendant paving can be found in all constituent communities, mostly in the old community cores and in new development areas. Walking paths through the Rodau-Aue in Dudenhofen and Jügesheim, partly laid out like a park, are reserved for pedestrians.
Adjoining the northern rest area is a motel. This concept, however, was abandoned in the early s and they were converted to self-service restaurants. Since , six heavily used intersections within Rodgau town limits have been replaced with roundabouts with raised, plant-covered islands.
To reduce traffic in residential areas, four further, small roundabouts have been built. At the bathing lake in Nieder-Roden there are roughly 2, parking places right near the entrance to the bathing beach.