Hochschule Bochum - bochum university of applied sciences
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Hier können Sie Ihren Leserbrief bequem, schnell und einfach online verfassen. Aktuelle Nachrichten aus der Altmark auf Facebook. Immer mehr Wölfe in der Altmark: Freies Internet noch Mangelware in Seehausen Seehausen. Entzündet war eine Fläche von circa Quadratmetern. Fotos Stones-Fans rocken das Waldbad Seehausen. One of these such vessels was beautifully decorated and covered in various Mayan glyphs.
One of these glyphs translated to "kakaw", also known as cacao. The inside of the vessel was lined with a dark colored powder, which was scraped off for further testing. Once the archaeologists took this powder to the Hershey Center for Health and Nutrition to be tested, they found trace amounts of theobromine in the powder, a major indicator of cacao. This cacao was dated to sometime between and AD . Cacao powder was also found in beautifully decorated bowls and jars, known at tecomates, in the city of Puerto Escondido.
Once thought to have been a very rare commodity, cacao was found in many more tecomates than once thought possible. However since this powder was only found in bowls of higher quality, it led archaeologists to believe that only wealthier people could afford such bowls, and therefore the cacao.
The cacao tecomates are thought to have been a center piece to social gatherings between people of high social status. Earliest evidence of domestication of the cacao plant dates to the Olmec culture from the Preclassic period.
Little evidence remains of how the beverage was processed. The Maya people, Guatemala , by contrast, do leave some surviving writings about cacao which confirm the identification of the drink with the gods. The Dresden Codex specifies that it is the food of the rain deity Kon , the Madrid Codex that gods shed their blood on the cacao pods as part of its production.
The Maya seasoned their chocolate by mixing the roasted cacao seed paste into a drink with water, chile peppers and cornmeal , transferring the mixture repeatedly between pots until the top was covered with a thick foam. There were many uses for cacao among the Maya. It was used in official ceremonies and religious rituals, at feasts and festivals, as funerary offerings, as tribute, and for medicinal purposes.
Both cacao itself and vessels and instruments used for the preparation and serving of cacao were used for important gifts and tribute. Mayan preparation of cacao started with cutting open cacao pods to expose the beans and the fleshy pulp. The beans were left out to ferment for a few days. In some cases, the beans were also roasted over an open fire in order to add a smoky flavor to it. The beans then had their husks removed and were ground into a paste. Since sweeteners were rarely used by Mayans, they flavored their cacao paste with additives like flowers, vanilla pods, and chilies.
The vessel used to serve this chocolate liquid was stubbier by nature to help froth the liquid better, which was very important to the Mayans.
The vessels also tended to be decorated in intricate designs and patterns, which tended to only be accessible by the rich. By , the Aztec Empire took over a sizable part of Mesoamerica.
They were not able to grow cacao themselves, but were forced to import it. The cacao bean became a form of currency. The Spanish conquistadors left records of the value of the cacao bean, noting for instance that beans could purchase a canoe filled with fresh water or a turkey hen. It was consumed for a variety of purposes, as an aphrodisiac or as a treat for men after banquets, and it was also included in the rations of Aztec soldiers.
Until the 16th century, the cacao tree was wholly unknown to Europeans. Christopher Columbus encountered the cacao bean on his fourth mission to the Americas on August 15, , when he and his crew seized a large native canoe that proved to contain among other goods for trade, cacao beans.
From time to time they served him [Montezuma] in cups of pure gold a certain drink made from cacao. It was said that it gave one power over women, but this I never saw. I did see them bring in more than fifty large pitchers of cacao with froth in it, and he drank some of it, the women serving with great reverence.
Jose de Acosta , a Spanish Jesuit missionary who lived in Peru and then Mexico in the later 16th century, described its use more generally:. Loathsome to such as are not acquainted with it, having a scum or froth that is very unpleasant taste.
Yet it is a drink very much esteemed among the Indians, where with they feast noble men who pass through their country.