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The old, sombre gatehouses were demolished because they impeded transport and were an outmoded form of defence.
The walls were built over in places. Margrave Frederick successfully kept his principality out of the wars being waged by his brother-in-law, Frederick the Great, at this time, and, as a result, brought a time of peace to the Frankish kingdom.
The university has remained there to the present today. From to there was also an Academy of Arts and Sciences. Roman Catholics were given the right to set up a prayer room and Jewish families settled here again. In the synagogue was opened and in the Jewish cemetery was dedicated. Countess Wilhelmina died in and, although, Margrave Frederick married again, the marriage was only short-lived and without issue. After his death in , many artists and craftsmen migrated to Berlin and Potsdam, to work for King Frederick the Great, because Frederick's successor, Margrave Frederick Christian had little understanding of art.
He also lacked the means due to the elaborate lifestyle of his predecessor, because the buildings and the salaries of the mainly foreign artists had swallowed up a lot of money.
For example, the court - which under George Frederick Charles had comprised around people - had grown to about employees by the end of the reign of Margrave Frederick.
In Margrave Charles Alexander , from the Ansbach line of Frankish Hohenzollerns, followed the childless Frederick Christian and Bayreuth was reduced to a secondary residence. Charles Alexander continued to live in Ansbach and rarely came to Bayreuth. Following the abdication of the last Margrave, Charles Alexander, from the principalities of Ansbach and Bayreuth on 2 December its territories became part of a Prussian province.
The Prussian Minister Karl August von Hardenberg took over its administration at the beginning of The town centre still possesses the typical structure of a Bavarian street market: The church stood apart from it and on a small hill stood the castle.
Some sixty years later the town at that time a tiny village became subordinate to the Hohenzollern state, and when this state was divided, Bayreuth ended up in the County of Kulmbach. In , the author Jean Paul Richter moved from Coburg to Bayreuth, where he lived until his death in The rule of the Hohenzollerns over the Principality of Kulmbach-Bayreuth ended in after the defeat of Prussia by Napoleonic France.
During the French occupation from to Bayreuth was treated as a province of the French Empire and had to pay high war contributions. It was placed under the administration of Comte Camille de Tournon , who wrote a detailed inventory of the former Principality of Bayreuth.
On 30 June the French army handed over the former principality to what was now the Kingdom of Bavaria , which it had bought from Napoleon for 15 million francs. Bayreuth became the capital of the Bavarian district of Mainkreis , which later transferred into Obermainkreis and was finally renamed as the province of Upper Franconia.
Bayreuth was first given a railway connexion in , when the Bayreuth—Neuenmarkt-Wirsberg railway was built at the town's expense. It was followed in by the line to Weiden , in by the railway to Schnabelwaid , in by the branch line to Warmensteinach , in by the branch to Hollfeld and in by the branch via Thurnau to Kulmbach , known as the Thurnauer Bockala which means something like "Thurnau Goat". On 17 April Richard Wagner visited Bayreuth, because he had read about the Margrave Opera House, whose great stage seemed fitting for his works.
However, the orchestra pit could not accommodate the large number of musicians required, for example, for the Ring of the Nibelung and the ambience of the auditorium seemed inappropriate for his piece. The town supported him in this project and made a piece of land available to him, an undeveloped area outside the town between the railway station and Hohe Warte, the de: Grüner Hügel "Green Hill".
At the same time Wagner acquired a property at Hofgarten to build his own house, Wahnfried. On 22 May the cornerstone for the Festival Hall was laid and, on 13 August , it was officially opened see Bayreuth Festival.
Planning and construction were in the hands of the Leipzig architect, Otto Brückwald , who had already made a name for himself in the building of theatres in Leipzig and Altenburg. Both Liszt and Wagner are buried in Bayreuth; however Wagner did not die there. Rather he died in Venice in , but his family had his body brought to Bayreuth for burial. The new century also brought several innovations of modern technology: In —15, one section of the northern arm of the Red Main was straightened and widened after areas along the river had been flooded during a period of high water in On 17 February , there was a three-day coup, the so-called Speckputsch , a brief interlude of excitement in the otherwise rather staid town.
There he met writer Houston Stewart Chamberlain , son-in-law of Richard Wagner and anti-semitic race theorist. Also on that day, Hans Schemm met Hitler for the first time.
In , the provinces of Upper and Middle Franconia were merged and Ansbach was chosen as the seat of government. As a small compensation, Bayreuth was given the merged state insurance agency for Upper and Middle Franconia.
Unlike the provincial merger, the merger of those institutions was never reversed. Being a stronghold of right-wing parties since the s, Bayreuth became a center of Nazi ideology.
Nazi leaders often visited the Wagner festival and tried to turn Bayreuth into a Nazi model town. It was one of several places in which town planning was administered directly from Berlin, due to Hitler's special interest in the town and in the festival.
Hitler loved the music of Richard Wagner, and he became a close friend of Winifred Wagner after she took over the festival. Hitler frequently attended Wagner performances in the Bayreuth Festival Hall.
Bayreuth was to have received a so-called Gauforum , a combined government building and marching square built to symbolise the centre of power in the town.
In the town was connected to the new Reichsautobahn. Under Nazi dictatorship the synagogue of the Jewish Community in Münzgasse was desecrated and looted on Kristallnacht but, due to its proximity to the Opera House it was not razed.
Inside the building, which is once again used by a Jewish community as a synagogue, a plaque next to the Torah Shrine recalls the persecution and murder of Jews in the Shoah , which took the lives of at least Jews in Bayreuth. During the Second World War, a subcamp of the Flossenbürg concentration camp was based in the town,  in which prisoners had to participate in physical experiments for the V Wieland Wagner , the grandson of the composer, Richard Wagner , was the deputy civilian director there in late and early April  .
Shortly before the war's end branches of the People's Court Volksgerichtshof were to have been set up in Bayreuth. On 5, 8 and 11 April about one third of the town, including many public buildings and industrial installations were destroyed by heavy air strikes, along with 4, houses.
On 14 April, the U. Army occupied the town. After the war Bayreuth tried to part with its ill-fated past. It became part of the American Zone.
The housing situation was very difficult at first: This increase was primarily due to the high number of refugees and expellees. Even in more than 11, refugees were counted. In addition, because many homes had been destroyed due to the war, thousands of people were living in temporary shelters, even the festival restaurant next to the Festival Hall housed some people. In , 1, men were conscripted by the town council for "essential work" clean-up work on damaged buildings and the clearing of roads.
A significant number of historic buildings were demolished post-war but cultural life was soon back on track: In the Festival Hall was used for the first time again and there was a gala concert with the Vienna Philharmonic led by Hans Knappertsbusch.
Wieland Wagner's fresh and non-traditional stagings "restored credibility to a theater that had been totally ruined by Nazi ideology. In the Bavarian State Parliament decided to establish the University of Bayreuth and, on 3 November , it opened for lectures and research. There are now about 10, students in the town. In May , a serious accident occurred at the folk festival in the town, when an overcrowded carriage derailed and several people were thrown out.
Four died and five were injured, some seriously. At that time, it was the worst disaster on a roller coaster since the Second World War. In , Bayreuth chose its first CSU member and mayor, the lawyer, Michael Hohl, and, in , a Youth Parliament , consisting of 12 young people, aged 14—17 years, was elected for the first time.
The end of October saw the opening of the long-planned bus station and its associated office building on the newly created Hohenzollernplatz.
The town is best known for its association with the composer Richard Wagner , who lived in Bayreuth from until his death in In the northern part of Bayreuth is the Festival Hall , an opera house specially constructed for and exclusively devoted to the performance of Wagner's operas. The premieres of the final two works of Wagner's Ring Cycle " Siegfried " and " Götterdämmerung " ; the cycle as a whole; and of Parsifal took place here.
Every summer, Wagner's operas are performed at the Festspielhaus during the month-long Richard Wagner Festival, commonly known as the Bayreuth Festival. The Festival draws thousands each year, and has persistently been sold out since its inauguration in Currently, waiting lists for tickets can stretch for 10 years or more.
Owing to Wagner's relationship with the then unknown philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche , the first Bayreuth festival is cited as a key turning point in Nietzsche's philosophical development. Though at first an enthusiastic champion of Wagner's music, Nietzsche ultimately became hostile, viewing the festival and its revellers as symptom of cultural decay and bourgeois decadence —an event which led him to turn his eye upon the moral values esteemed by society as a whole - "Nietzsche clearly preferred to see Bayreuth fail than succeed by mirroring a society gone wrong.
Bayreuth lies on the Red Main river, the southern of the two headstreams of the River Main , between the Fichtelgebirge Mountains and Franconian Switzerland. The town is also part of the Nuremberg Metropolitan Region.
Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate rainfall year-round.
The results of the local elections in Bavaria were as follows in brackets the change from the elections:. Further twinnings with other European towns are planned. There is also a cultural partnership with the state of Burgenland , Austria , and a university partnership between the University of Bayreuth and the Washington and Lee University in Lexington , Virginia. Margrave Albert Achilles, who was also Elector of Brandenburg , presented the town Bayreuth in December with the coat of arms that it still bears today.
Two fields show the black and white coat of arms of the Hohenzollerns. The black lion on gold with a red and white border was the municipal coat of arms of the burgraves of Nuremberg. Along the two diagonals are two Reuten , small triangular shovels with a slightly bent shaft. They represent the ending -reuth in the town's name.
It is both a museum and the oldest working tableau in Bayreuth. The Festival Hall dates to the 19th century and is now used solely for the Bayreuth Festival. Only works by Richard Wagner are put on. The Bayreuth Town House Stadthaus , likewise, does not have its own ensemble. It is regularly used by the Theater Hof as well as the Tourneetheater.
The only two theatres with their own ensemble are the Studiobühne Bayreuth and amateur dramatic society, Brandenburg Kulturstadl. Near the Festival Hall is the Festival Park. On the Königsallee , east of the town centre, is the relatively small Miedel Garden. The best known park in Bayreuth is that of the 'Eremitage' Hermitage in the district of St.