Imperial Cleaning

Cycling in Herzogtum Lauenburg

George William compensated John George III, Elector of Saxony , for his claim by a substantial sum of money, since the ancestors of both these princes had made treaties of mutual succession with former dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg.

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Single mom licks ass. Single Teen at Home get Creampie. So, when in the Holy Roman Empire established the Imperial Circles as tax levying and army recruitment districts, the circle comprising Saxe-Lauenburg and all its neighbours became designated as Saxon Circle , while the Wettin -ruled Saxon electorate and duchies at that time formed the Upper Saxon Circle.

In , Duke Julius Henry decreed in his general disposition guidelines for his government "to also esteem the woodlands as heart and dwell [of revenues] of the Principality of Lower Saxony. The people of Hadeln, represented by their estates of the realm, adopted the Lutheran Reformation in and Duke Magnus I confirmed Hadeln's Lutheran Church Order in , establishing Hadeln's separate ecclesiastical body existing until Francis I conducted a thrifty reign and resigned in favour of his eldest son Magnus II once having exploited all his means in Magnus II promised to redeem the pawned ducal demesnes with funds he gained as a Swedish military commander and by his marriage to Princess Sophia of Sweden.

However, Magnus did not redeem pawns but further alienated ducal possessions, which ignited a conflict between Magnus and his father and brothers Francis II and Maurice as well as the estates of the duchy , further escalating due to Magnus' violent temperament.

The following year Magnus hired troops in order to take Saxe-Lauenburg with violence. In return Saxe-Lauenburg had to cede the bailiwick of Steinhorst to Gottorp in Francis II again helped his father to inhibit Magnus' second military attempt to overthrow his father in In - shortly before he died and after consultations with his son Prince-Archbishop Henry of Bremen and Emperor Rudolph II , but unconcerted with his other sons Magnus and Maurice - Francis I made his third son Francis II, whom he considered the ablest, his sole successor, violating the rules of primogeniture.

The general church visitation of , prompted by Francis II, showed poor results as to the knowledge, practice and behaviour of many pastors.

Francis II's attempt to merge Hadeln's Lutheran church body with that in the rest of the duchy was unanimously rejected by Hadeln's clergy and estates in and The violation of the primogeniture, however, gave grounds for the estates to perceive the upcoming duke Francis II as illegitimate.

This forced him into negotiations, which ended on 16 December with the constitutional act of the "Eternal Union" German: Ewige Union of the representatives of Saxe-Lauenburg's nobility Ritterschaft, i. Francis II accepted their establishment as a permanent institution with a crucial say in government matters. In return Ritter- und Landschaft accepted Francis II as legitimate and rendered him homage as duke in The relations between Ritter- und Landschaft and duke improved since Francis II redeemed ducal pawns with money he had earned as imperial commander.

He had converted from Lutheranism to Catholicism in expectation of becoming appointed Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück in , but guaranteed to leave the Lutheran state church and the Lower Saxon Church Order untouched. He confirmed the existing privileges of the nobility and the Ritter- und Landschaft.

In he forbade his vassals to pledge or else alienate fiefs , thus fighting the integration of manor estates in Saxe-Lauenburg into the monetary economies of the neighbouring economically powerful Hanseatic cities of Hamburg and Lübeck.

He entered with both city-states into frontier disputes on manor estates which were in the process of evading Saxe-Lauenburgian overlordship into the competence of the city-states. So the two surviving out of the three daughters of Julius Francis, Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg and Sibylle Auguste of Saxe-Lauenburg fought for the succession of the former, the elder sister.

Their weakness was abused by Duke George William of the neighbouring Brunswick and Lunenburgian Principality of Lunenburg, seated in Celle , who invaded Saxe-Lauenburg with his troops, [2] thus inhibiting the ascension of the legal heiress to the throne Duchess Anna Maria. There were at least eight monarchies claiming the succession, [2] resulting in a conflict involving further the neighbouring duchies of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and of Danish Holstein , as well as the five Ascanian-ruled Principalities of Anhalt , the Electorate of Saxony , which had succeeded the Saxe-Wittenbergian Ascanians in , Sweden and Brandenburg.

Militarily engaged were Celle and Danish Holstein, which agreed on 9 October Hamburger Vergleich , that Celle anyway de facto holding most of Saxe-Lauenburg would retain the duchy, while the fortress in Ratzeburg, fortified under Celle rule and directed against Holstein, would be razed.

In return Danish Holstein, which had invaded Ratzeburg and ruined the fortress, would withdraw its troops. George William compensated John George III, Elector of Saxony , for his claim by a substantial sum of money, since the ancestors of both these princes had made treaties of mutual succession with former dukes of Saxe-Lauenburg. Emperor Leopold I rejected Celle's succession and thus retained Hadeln, which was out of Celle's reach, in his custody.

James' Palace on 21 January The duchy was occupied by French troops in —05, [2] after which the French occupational troops left in a campaign against Austria. In December the Empire of the French , since France's new form of government, ceded Saxe-Lauenburg, which it no longer held, to Brandenburg-Prussia , which captured it early in But when the Kingdom of Prussia the name element Electorate of Brandenburg had turned void at the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire on 6 August , after it had turned — as part of the Fourth Coalition — against France, was defeated in the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt November 11, , France recaptured Saxe-Lauenburg.

In remained first under French occupation, before on 1 March most of it was annexed to the Kingdom of Westphalia , a French client state. On 1 January , most of the former duchy — except for the Amt Neuhaus and the Marschvogtei, which remained with Westphalia — was annexed to the First French Empire.

On 7 June , after 14 months under its rule, the Prussia granted Saxe-Lauenburg to Sweden, receiving in return the former Swedish Pomerania , however, additionally paying 2. During the First Schleswig War — , the Ritter- und Landschaft prevented a Prussian conquest by requesting Hanoverian troops as peace-keeping occupational forces on behalf of the German Confederation. In September the same year, he accepted and ruled the duchy in personal union since. In , Saxe-Lauenburg was one of the component constituent states founding united Germany.

For the further history see Herzogtum Lauenburg. For the Duchesses consort see List of Saxon consorts , partially also presenting portraits.

For portraits of the dukes, starting with Julius Henry, see List of Saxon rulers. In the brothers split their inheritance between them, however, only two brothers had heirs creating the Bergedorf-Mölln and the Ratzeburg-Lauenburg lines.

First named Saxe-Mölln, however, renamed following a territorial redeployment including parts of Albert III's share in

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