It had been Sadr who laid the foundations for the party and its ideology, based on Wilayat Al-Umma Governance of the people. A twin party was also founded in Lebanon by clerics who had studied in Najaf and supported Muhammad Baqr al-Sadr's vision of a resurgent Islam. Hizb Al-Dawa gained strength in the s recruiting from among the Shia ulama and youth. It waged an armed insurgency against the Iraqi government which initiated a crackdown on Shi'a political activism, driven in part by the secular nature of the Ba'athist ideology and in part by their view of a politicized Shi'a as a threat to the stability of the regime.
During the s, the government shut down the Shi'a journal Risalat al-Islam and closed several religious educational institutions. The government passed a law obligating Iraqi students of the hawza to undertake national military service. The Ba'athists then began specifically targeting Al-Dawa members, arresting and imprisoning them from onwards. In , someone killed the alleged head of Al-Dawa's Baghdad branch in prison.
In , 75 Al-Dawa members were arrested and sentenced to death by the Ba'athist revolutionary court. Although subject to repressive measures throughout the s, large-scale opposition to the government by Al-Dawa goes back to the Safar Intifada of February Despite the government's ban on the celebration of marad al-ras, Al-Dawa organized the procession in They were subsequently attacked by police. Widely viewed in the West as a terrorist organization at the time, the Dawa party was banned in and its members sentenced to death in absentia by the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council.
Dawa supported the Islamic Revolution in Iran and in turn received support from the Iranian government. In , Dawa moved its headquarters to Tehran , the capital of Iran. One of those convicted for the bombing was Jamal Jafaar Mohammed , a member of Iraq's parliament and military commander of the Popular Mobilization Forces.
Despite this cooperation, al-Sadr's and Khomeini's visions of an Islamic Republic differed sharply in certain respects. While Khomeini argued the power of the state should rest with the ulema , Al-Dawa supported the notion of power resting with the ummah , or in other words, the people.
Al-Dawa claimed to have many Sunni members in the s and coordinated with several Sunni Islamist groups at that stage. In the West, Al-Dawa was widely viewed as a terrorist organization during the Iran—Iraq War, especially since the West tended to be more supportive of Iraq during that conflict. It is thought responsible for a host of assassination attempts in Iraq against the president, prime minister and others, as well as attacks against Western and Sunni targets elsewhere.
It attempted to assassinate Tariq Aziz , Hussein's longtime loyalist, in ; and Saddam Hussein himself in and Following Saddam's overthrow, the former President was ultimately hanged for the Dujail Massacre , the judicial reprisals and torture carried out following a Dawa assassination attempt on himself in The efforts of Al-Dawa representatives and other opponents of Saddam Hussein led to the founding of the Iraqi National Congress , which relied heavily on United States funding.
The Dawa Party itself participated in the congress between and , withdrawing because of disagreements with Kurdish parties over how Iraq should be governed after Hussein's eventual ouster. Most leaders of Al-Dawa remained in exile in Iran and elsewhere until the American invasion of Iraq in Ibrahim al-Jaafari was personally involved in ensuring that Al-Dawa participated in anti war protests across the UK in the run up to the Iraq war.
Al-Dawa chose Nasariyah as its base of operations in Iraq and now essentially controls this city. The political ideology of Al-Dawa is heavily influenced by work done by Baqr al-Sadr who laid out four mandatory principles of governance in his work, Islamic Political System.
Upon joining the party, allegiance must be sworn to the party. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. I found no evidence of profiteering. In the end, the key issue comes down to the attitude of hoteliers and cruise liners. They argue that they have to charge extra because singles are a less attractive commercial proposition for them. The fixed costs of running a room — cleaning and servicing, linen, heating and so on — are the same no matter how many people occupy it.
And single travellers spend less money in the restaurant and bar than couples. I have two issues with this. The first concerns the pricing of single rooms, which are often inferior to doubles and may be tucked away in less attractive parts of the hotel. Despite these disadvantages, the rates are usually far more than half the price of a double.
Second, if a hotel or ship isn't full, the claims that revenue is lost when a room is sold to a single person seem much less convincing. In this situation, single travellers could argue that they are occupying a room which would otherwise be empty and not producing any revenue.
And since single travellers are much less likely to be tied to travelling in school holidays, they will often be staying at quieter times when some rooms are likely to be empty. Just as airlines can now predict seat sales, hoteliers are very good at predicting the periods when they will have spare capacity. Knowing this, they could make more of an effort to attract singles. To be fair, some do make an effort and work with operators to reduce extra charges or offer supplement-free holidays.
I've listed some examples from a range of operators on the right. But first, here are six ways to avoid or reduce supplements in a more strategic way. Negotiate Holidaymakers have the upper hand over tour operators and hotels at the moment. If you are booking at a time when the hotel is unlikely to be sold out or is offering special deals, phone and ask the tour operator whether it will waive the supplement.
Cut out the middle man If you are prepared to book independently, try contacting the hotel by phone or email to negotiate the best possible rate for a single room or single occupancy. Many hotels are quieter at these times and more willing to offer better rates for single occupancy.
Some tour operators and cruise companies highlight dates in these months when they are offering tours and hotel stays which are reserved for single travellers or which don't attract supplements. Book with an operator that specialises in singles holidays Below are six companies that offer various types of holiday specificially aimed at single travellers. Some offer tours with a balanced number of men and women; some are relaxed about such things.
Mostly, they do not charge supplements, but offer a single or double room for sole occupancy — though that does not mean they are necessarily cheaper overall than an operator which prices in a different way, so compare prices before booking.
Friendship Travel ; friendshiptravel. Consider sharing Many tour operators will offer to try to arrange a shared room with another single traveller of the same sex. Alternatively, you could try to find a travelling companion through a specialist singles website. Two membership sites which put a particular emphasis on travel are singleagain.