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Bass guitar

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Prince is seen performing in London in , left, with one of his signature guitars. Fans are seen photographing clothes, awards, musical instruments on display at a press preview for Julien's Auctions 'Property From the Life and Career of Prince' auction.

Various pairs of Prince's signature high-heel booties are included, along with jewelry, clothing designed by Versace and Prada, record awards, posters, tour schedules, backstage passes and set lists. The second day's items include guitars played by Bob Dylan and George Harrison, as well as costumes and jewelry. A black rip-stop nylon long-sleeve jacket with white reflective plastic collar, epaulets and decorative piping, worn by Michael Jackson as he accepted the Artist of a Generation Award presented by Bob Geldof at the BRIT Awards held in February , left,.

The red electric guitars was made in A set list circa on a sheet of paper in Paul McCartney's handwriting. The set list is signed on the back in blue pen by John Lennon and Ringo Starr. John Lennon pictured writing in a notebook in a dressing room backstage in The Beetles' George Harrison's first electric guitar is also being auctioned later this week. George Harrison's first electric guitar, a Hofner Club 40 not seen since is being sold. Harrison played the small blonde with black body binding single—cutaway hollow body instrument in the early days of The Beatles when they performed around Liverpool as The Quarrymen.

In , Harrison was asked to donate his guitar to a band competition that would help promote The Beatles' German tour. The guitar was autographed with the Beatles' names by their road manager, Neil Aspinall and was won by the German band Faces who later met The Beatles backstage during their concert in Hamburg to thank them for the guitar.

Bob Dylan's electric guitar, a Fender Telecaster is considered one of the most important in rock history. It was also played by Robbie Robertson, the band's legendary guitarist and songwriter. There are also costumes worn by other musical legends. Michael Jackson's black patent leather ensemble from his Moonwalker video and one one of Elton John's bejeweled jumpsuits.

The same estimate is expected for his ruby and diamond ring, seen right. Elvis Presley on the set of Elvis: That's the Way It Is during which he could be seen wearing some of the rings that are now being auctioned later this week. One of Elton John's legendary jumpsuits could be yours if you're prepared to splash out. The custom—made ivory jumpsuit worn by the Rocket Man while backstage with John Lennon and Elizabeth Taylor at Madison Square Garden in New York City on November 28, is embellished with rows of colorful iridescent glass encased in metal prongs with the verso reading 'Elton' spelled out in iridescent glass.

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Share this article Share. Share or comment on this article: Horrified pregnant woman discovers a dead rat floating in Mark Zuckerberg's very competitive passions: Cruel bullies reduce a girl with learning difficulties to Is your 4WD breaking the law? Owners targeted in a major Elite barrister whose ex-private schoolboy sons are Mother of two, 32, sent her children away to a sleepover Massive brawl erupts among more than 70 schoolchildren Shirtless English football fans mimic Russian hooligans Tearful vegan, 26, tells of her horror at eating meat for Brexiteers are playing 'Russian Roulette' by trying to Stephen Colbert rips his former Shocking moment two women nearly electrocute themselves British holiday dancer 'sexually assaulted by hotel The thumbrest was moved above the strings in s models as a true thumbrest and eliminated in the s.

Nevertheless, some reissued versions of vintage Fender basses in the s do include a thumbrest. The slap and pop method, or "thumbstyle", most associated with funk , uses tones and percussive sounds achieved by striking, thumping, or "slapping" a string with the thumb and snapping or "popping" a string or strings with the index or middle fingers.

Bassists often interpolate left hand-muted " dead notes " also called "ghost notes" between the slaps and pops to achieve a rapid percussive effect, and after a note is slapped or popped, the fretting hand may cause other notes to sound by using " hammer ons ", " pull offs ", or a left-hand glissando slide. Slap and pop style is also used by many bassists in other genres, such as rock e. Spank bass developed from the slap and pop style and treats the electric bass as a percussion instrument, striking the strings above the pickups with an open palmed hand.

Wooten popularized the "double thump," in which the string is slapped twice, on the upstroke and a downstroke for more information, see Classical Thump. A rarely used playing technique related to slapping is the use of wooden dowel " funk fingers ", an approach popularized by Tony Levin.

A pick or plectrum produces a more pronounced attack, for speed, or personal preference. Bass with a pick is primarily associated with rock and punk rock , but player in other styles also use them. Jazz bassist Steve Swallow often plays with a pick, [53] while Pink Floyd bassist Roger Waters uses one for a heavier tone. Mike Gordon of Phish uses a pick while also incorporating slapping techniques into his playing.

Picks can be used with alternating downstrokes and upstrokes, or with all downstrokes for a more consistent attack. The pick is usually held with the index and thumb, with the up-and-down plucking motion supplied by the wrist. There are many varieties of picks available, but due to the thicker, heavier strings of the electric bass, bassists tend to use heavier picks than those used for electric guitar, typically ranging from 1. Different materials are used for picks, including plastic, nylon, rubber, and felt, all of which produce different tones.

Felt and rubber picks sound closer to a fingerstyle tone. Palm-muting is a widely used bass technique. The outer edge of the palm of the picking hand is rested on the bridge while picking, and "mutes" the strings, shortening the sustain time. The harder the palm presses, or the more string area that is contacted by the palm, the shorter the string's sustain.

The sustain of the picked note can be varied for each note or phrase. The shorter sustain of a muted note on an electric bass can be used to imitate the shorter sustain and character of an upright bass. Palm-muting is commonly done while using a pick, but can also be done without a pick, as when doing down-strokes with the thumb.

Sting also uses palm-muting, but often without a pick, using the thumb and first finger to pluck. The fretting hand—the left hand for right-handed bass players and right hand for left-handed bass players—presses down the strings to play different notes and shape the tone or timbre of a plucked or picked note.

One fretting technique is a finger per fret, where each finger in the fretting hand plays one fret in a given position, giving the advantage that full chromatic scale of over an octave and a half can be played with no up-down wrist movement.

Also, the double bass-style technique can be used for fretting. This technique involves using four fingers in the space of three frets, especially in the lower positions i. When considering the spacing between notes, this is a comfortable distance for the average person's hand size, however it requires more up-down hand movements.

The main advantage of the " four fingers in three frets technique is less tendon strain, leading to a diminished likelihood of Repetitive Strain Injury RSI. The image below of a bassist performing tapping shows the four-in-three.

A player can use the fretting hand to change a sounded note, either by fully muting it after plucking it, or by partially muting it near the bridge to reduce volume, or make the note fade faster. The fretting hand often mutes strings that are not being played to stop sympathetic vibrations, particularly when the player wants a "dry" or "focused" sound.

On the other hand, the sympathetic resonance of harmonically related strings are sometimes desirable. In these cases, a bassist can fret harmonically related notes.

For example, while fretting a sustained "F" on the third fret of the "D" string , underneath an F major chord being played by a piano player, a bassist might hold down the "C" and low "F" below this note so their harmonics sound sympathetically. The fretting hand can add vibrato to a plucked or picked note, either a gentle, narrow vibrato or a more exaggerated, wide vibrato with bigger pitch variations. For fretted basses, vibrato is always an alternation between the pitch of the note and a slightly higher pitch.

For fretless basses, the player can use this style of vibrato, or they can alternate between the note and a slightly lower pitch, as is done with the double bass and on other unfretted stringed instruments. While vibrato is mostly done on "stopped" notes —that is, notes that are pressed down on the fingerboard—open strings can also be vibratoed by pressing down on the string behind the nut.

As well, the fretting hand can be used to "bend" a plucked or picked note up in pitch, by pushing or pulling the string so that the note sounds at a higher pitch. To create the opposite effect, a "bend down", the string is pushed to a higher pitch before being plucked or picked and then allowed to fall to the lower, regular pitch after it is sounded. Though rare, some bassists may use a tremolo bar -equipped bass to produce the same effect. In addition to pressing down one note at a time, bassists can also press down several notes at one time with their fretting hand to perform a double stop two notes at once or a chord.

While double stops and chords are used less often by bassists than by electric guitarists playing rhythm guitar , a variety of double stops and chords can be performed on the electric bass. Some double stops used by bassists include octaves. Chords can be especially with effective on instruments with higher ranges such as six-string basses. Another variation to fully pressing down a string is to gently graze the string with the finger at the harmonic node points on the string, which creates chime-like upper partials also called "overtones".

Glissando is an effect in which the fretting hand slides up or down the neck, which can be used to create a slide in pitch up or down. A subtle glissando can be performed by moving the fretting hand without plucking or picking the string; for a more pronounced effect, the string is plucked or picked first, or, in a metal or hardcore punk context, a pick may be scraped along the sides of the lower strings.

The fretting hand can also be used to sound notes, either by plucking an open string with the fretting hand, or, in the case of a string that has already been plucked or picked, by "hammering on" a higher pitch or "pulling off" a finger to pluck a lower fretted or open stringed note.

Jazz bassists use a subtle form of fretting hand pizzicato by plucking a very brief open string grace note with the fretting hand right before playing the string with the plucking hand.

When a string is rapidly hammered on, the note can be prolonged into a trill. In the two-handed tapping styles, bassists use both hands to play notes on the fretboard by rapidly pressing and holding the string to the fret. Instead of plucking or picking the string to create a sound, in this technique, the action of striking the string against the fret or the fretboard creates the sound.

Since two hands can be used to play on the fretboard, this makes it possible to play interweaving contrapuntal lines, to simultaneously play a bass line and a simple chord, or play chords and arpeggios. Bassist John Entwistle of The Who tapped percussively on the strings, causing them to strike the fretboard with a twangy sound to create drum-style fills.

The Chapman Stick and Warr Guitars are string instruments specifically designed to play using two-handed tapping. Strumming , usually with finger nails, is a common technique on acoustic guitar , but it is not a commonly used technique for bass. However, notable examples are Stanley Clarke 's bass playing on the introduction to "School Days", on the album of the same name [54] , and Lemmy who was noted for his use of chords, often playing the bass like a rhythm guitar.

The late Bernard Edwards , bass player with the Disco group Chic , was known to use a technique called chucking to pluck the bass strings with the forefinger of his right hand, in a manner similar to how strings are plucked with a plectrum. The thumb supports the forefinger at the first joint, as though using an invisible plectrum. With a flexible wrist action, chucking facilitates rapid rhythmic sequences of notes played on different strings, particular notes that are an octave apart.

Chucking is distinguished from plucking in that the attack is softer with a sound closer to that produced by the use of fingers. Chucking allows a mix of plucking and finger techniques on a given song, without having to take up or put down a plectrum. Popular music bands and rock groups use the bass guitar as a member of the rhythm section , which provides the chord sequence or " progression " and sets out the " beat " for the song.

The rhythm section typically consists of a rhythm guitarist or electric keyboard player, or both, a bass guitarist and a drummer ; larger groups may add additional guitarists, keyboardists, or percussionists.

Bassists often play a bass line composed by an arranger , songwriter or composer of a song—or, in the case of a cover song , the bass line from the original. Types of bass lines vary widely, depending on musical style. However, the bass guitarist generally fulfills a similar role: The importance of the bass guitarist and the bass line varies in different styles of music. In some pop styles, such as s-era pop and musical theater, the bass sometimes plays a relatively simple part as the music emphasizes vocals and melody instruments.

In contrast, in reggae , funk, or hip-hop, entire songs may center on the bass groove, and the bass line is usually prominent in the mix. In traditional music such as country music , folk rock , and related styles, the bass often plays the roots and fifth typically the fifth below the root of each chord in alternation.

In these styles, bassists often use scalar "walkups" or "walkdowns" when there is a chord change. In Chicago blues , the electric bass often performs a walking bassline made up of scales and arpeggios. In blues rock bands, the bassist often plays blues scale -based riffs and chugging boogie -style lines. In metal , the bass guitar may perform complex riffs along with the rhythm guitarist or play a low, rumbling pedal point to anchor the group's sound.

The bass guitarist sometimes breaks out of the strict rhythm section role to perform bass breaks or bass solos. The types of bass lines used for bass breaks or bass solos vary by style. In a rock band, a bass break may consist of the bassist playing a riff or lick during a pause in the song. In some styles of metal, a bass break may consist of " shred guitar "-style tapping on the bass. In a funk or funk rock band, a bass solo may showcase the bassist's percussive slap and pop playing.

In genres such as progressive rock , art rock , or progressive metal , the bass guitar player may play melody lines along with the lead guitar or vocalist and perform extended guitar solos. Chords are not used that often by electric bass players. However, in some styles, bassists may sound "double stops", such as octaves with open strings and powerchords.

In Latin music, double stops with fifths are used. Lemmy of Motörhead often played power chords in his bass lines. While bass guitar solos are not common in popular music, some artists, particularly in the heavy metal, funk, and progressive rock genres, do use them. In a rock context, bass guitar solos are structured and performed in a similar fashion as rock guitar solos, often with the musical accompaniment from the verse or chorus sections.

Bass solos are performed using a range of different techniques, such as plucking or fingerpicking. In the s, The Who 's bassist, John Entwistle , performed a bass break on the song " My Generation " using a plectrum.

He originally intended to use his fingers, but could not put his plectrum down quickly enough. Led Zeppelin 's " Good Times Bad Times ", the first song on their first album , contains two brief bass solos, occurring after the song's first and third choruses.

Queen 's bassist, John Deacon , occasionally played bass solos, such as on the song " Liar ". Manowar 's bassist Joey DeMaio uses special piccolo bass for his extremely fast bass solos like "Sting of the Bumblebee" and "William's Tale". U2 includes a bass solo most notably on " Gloria ", in which Adam Clayton uses several playing techniques.

Matt Freeman of Rancid performs a very fast, guitar-like bass solo in the song "Maxwell Murder". In both published Van Halen concert videos, Michael Anthony performs unique maneuvers and actions during his solos.

Funk bassists such as Larry Graham began using slapping and popping techniques for their solos, which coupled a percussive thumb-slapping technique of the lower strings with an aggressive finger-snap of the higher strings, often in rhythmic alternation.

The slapping and popping technique incorporates a large number of muted or 'ghost' tones to normal notes to add to the rhythmic effect. When playing bass solos, rock and metal bassists sometimes use effects such as fuzz bass or a wah-wah pedal to produce a more pronounced sound. Notably, Cliff Burton of Metallica used both effects.

Due to the lower range of the bass, bass guitar solos usually have a much lighter accompaniment than solos for other instruments. In some cases, the bass guitar solo is unaccompanied, or accompanied only by the drums. The electric bass is a relative newcomer to the world of jazz. The big bands of the s and s Swing era and the small combos of the s Bebop and Hard Bop movements all used the double bass.

The electric bass was introduced in some bands in the s and it became prominent during the late s and early s, when rock influences were blended with jazz to create jazz-rock fusion.

The introduction of the electric bass in jazz fusion, as in the rock world, helped bassists play in high-volume stadium concerts with powerful amplifiers, because it is easier to amplify the electric bass than the double bass the latter is prone to feedback in high-volume settings. The electric bass has both an accompaniment and a soloing role in jazz. In accompaniment, the bassist may perform walking basslines for traditional tunes and jazz standards , playing smooth quarter note lines that imitate the double bass.

It is called a walking bass line because of the way it rises and falls using scale notes and passing notes. For Latin or salsa tunes and rock-infused jazz fusion tunes, the electric bass may play rapid, syncopated rhythmic figures in coordination with the drummer, or lay down a low, heavy groove.

In a jazz setting, the electric bass tends to have a much more expansive solo role than in most popular styles. In most rock settings, the bass guitarist may only have a few short bass breaks or brief solos during a concert. During a jazz concert, a jazz bassist may have a number of lengthy improvised solos, which are called "blowing" in jazz parlance.

Whether a jazz bassist is comping accompanying or soloing, they usually aim to create a rhythmic drive and "timefeel" that creates a sense of " swing " and " groove ".

For information on notable jazz bassists, see the List of jazz bassists article. Contemporary classical music uses both the standard instruments of Western Art music piano, violin, double bass, etc. The electric bass guitar has occasionally been used in contemporary classical music art music since the late s. Contemporary composers often obtained unusual sounds or instrumental timbres through the use of non-traditional or unconventional instruments or playing techniques.

As such, bass guitarists playing contemporary classical music may be instructed to pluck or strum the instrument in unusual ways. However, contemporary classical composers may also write for the bass guitar to get its unique sound, and in particular its precise and piercing attack and timbre. For example, Steve Reich , explaining his decision to score 2x5 for two bass guitars, stated that, "[With electric bass guitars] you can have interlocking bass lines, which on an acoustic bass, played pizzicato, would be mud.

The pedagogy and training for the electric bass varies widely by genre and country. Rock and pop bass has a history of pedagogy dating back to the s and s, when method books were developed to help students learn the instrument.

In the jazz scene, since the bass guitar takes on much of the same role as the double bass—laying down the rhythm, and outlining the harmonic foundation—electric bass players have long used both bass guitar methods and jazz double bass method books.

The use of jazz double bass method books by electric bass players in jazz is facilitated in that jazz methods tend to emphasize improvisation techniques e. In the jazz scene, teens can begin taking private lessons on the instrument and performing in amateur big bands at high schools or run by the community.

Young adults who aspire to be come professional jazz bassists or studio rock bassists can continue their studies in a variety of formal training settings, including colleges and some universities.

Several colleges offer electric bass training in the US. BIT was one of the earliest professional training program for electric bassists. The Berklee College of Music in Boston offers training for electric bass players. Electric bass students get private lessons and there is a choice of over ensembles to play in. Berklee offers instruction for the four-, five-, and six-string electric bass, the fretless bass, and double bass.

The program accepts performers who play bass, guitar, keyboard, drums, melody instruments e. Students get private lessons and perform in 40 student ensembles. Although there are far fewer university programs that offer electric bass instruction in jazz and popular music, some universities offer bachelor's degrees B.

Mus degrees that accepts students who play bass double bass and electric bass , guitar, piano, drums, and melody instruments e. In the Australian state of Victoria, the Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority has set out minimum standards for its electric bass students doing their end-of-year Solo performance recital.

To graduate, students must perform pieces and songs from a set list that includes Baroque suite movements that were originally written for cello, s Motown tunes, s fusion jazz solos, and s slap bass tunes.

A typical program may include a Prelude by J. In other less mainstream genres, such as hardcore punk or metal, the pedagogical systems and training sequences are typically not formalized and institutionalized. As such, many players learn by ear, by copying bass lines from records and CDs, and by playing in a number of bands.

Even in non-mainstream styles, though, students may be able to take lessons from experts in these or other styles, adapting learned techniques to their own style. As well, there are a range of books, playing methods, and, since the s, instructional DVDs e. In the s, many instructional videos are available online on video-sharing websites such as YouTube. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.

Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed.

This article may contain indiscriminate , excessive , or irrelevant examples. Please improve the article by adding more descriptive text and removing less pertinent examples. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for further suggestions. Fender Precision Bass -style instrument. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar.

Guitars by Evans and Evans, page , agrees. The Bass Player Book: Equipment, Technique, Styles and Artists. Tom Mulhern, , pp How the Fender bass changed the world. Retrieved March 29, Cream of the Crop".

Retrieved September 5, Retrieved January 18, He is seen recording with the instrument in the film One Plus One a. Sympathy for the Devil. Hal Leonard Corporation, second edition. For Bass Players Only. It was created [2] by John Woolley in , based on a prototype built by David Minnieweather. Archived from the original on January 9, Retrieved February 7, An Interview with Jeroen Paul Thesseling". The "single-coil P" pickup is also used in the reissue and the Sting signature model.

Bass Player Magazine Online Edition. Archived from the original on February 2, Retrieved December 27, February 19, in basses, Featured By G. Archived from the original on February 13, Archived from the original on September 17,

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