As a consequence of the expansion outside Canterbury the university's name was formally changed to the University of Kent on 1 April In the university was rebranded with a new logo and website. The logo was chosen following consultation with existing university students and those in sixth forms across the country. The proposed changes to UK and EU undergraduate tuition fees did not apply to international student fees.
Following the extension of Keynes College in , two new colleges opened on the Canterbury campus, Woolf College for postgraduates in and Turing College for undergraduates in Several other new buildings were also added, including the Jarmin School of Arts Building in , the Colyer-Fergusson Music Building, a performing arts space, in , and the Sibson building, housing maths and the business school, in In , the University held a number of events to celebrate its 50th anniversary.
Festivals were held in Canterbury and Medway, a summer festival, the funding of twelve Beacon Projects and the temporary erection of a Ferris Wheel on the Canterbury campus. The main Canterbury campus covers acres 1. The campus currently has approximately 12, full-time and 6, part-time students, with accommodation for over , in addition to academic and research staff.
The campus is ecologically diverse and home to a number of protected species, including Great Crested Newts. The North West of the site is heavily forested, including pockets of ancient woodland, while the Southern Slopes contain a mix of wildflower and hay meadows, and there are seven ponds spread across the campus. The campus has a selection of shops, including a grocery store, bookshop, pharmacy and launderettes. Food and drink is provided by range of cafes and bars run either by the University or the student union.
Cafeteria style food is available in Rutherford College, fine dining at the Beagle Restaurant in Darwin College, and food is served at the bars and other cafes around campus. The campus nightclub, The Venue, was refurbished and modernised in and is open Wednesday to Saturday. Club nights and live music are also held at various bars on campus. Sporting facilities are spread across two main sites: The Gulbenkian arts complex includes a theatre and cinema, as well as a small stage which hosts monthly comedy nights as well as occasional shows such as Jazz at Five and The Chortle Student Comedy Awards.
The Gulbenkian Theatre seats and presents student, professional and amateur shows throughout the year. The theatre was opened in and was named after the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation which helped fund its construction. The Gulbenkian Cinema is an independent cinema in the Gulbenkian complex open to students and the general public. It is Kent's regional film theatre showing new mainstream and non-mainstream releases as well as archive and foreign language films.
In the daytime the cinema is used as a lecture theatre for University students. The A2 dual carriageway links the campus and city to London, the port at Dover and the national motorway network. The campus also lies at the southern end of the Crab and Winkle Way , a 7-mile off-road foot and cycle path running through farm and woodland to the coastal fishing town of Whitstable , providing a link for cycle commuters.
The closest railway station to the campus is Canterbury West which is, as of , served by Southeastern High Speed trains, connecting Canterbury with London St Pancras International in 56 minutes.
These services stop at Ashford International en route, thus providing a direct connection to Eurostar services to France and Belgium. Both of the Canterbury stations can be accessed by the UniBus service.
The nearest international air services are provided from the London airports, Gatwick and Heathrow , with direct National Express coach services to both from Canterbury bus station.
In the University joined with other educational institutes to form the "Universities for Medway" initiative, aimed at increasing participation in higher education in the Medway Towns. The University of Kent and Medway Park Leisure Centre have gone into a multimillion-pound partnership to provide high quality leisure facilities for university students and the general public.
Medway Park formerly the Black Lion Leisure Centre was re-opened in by Princess Anne for use as a training venue for the London Olympics, as well as a training venue for the Egyptian and Congo National teams. The campus accommodation was finished in late called Liberty Quays , and caters for over students. The accommodation building includes a Tesco Express , Subway , and Domino's Pizza , and Cargo, a bar showing sports, live music and entertainment.
Drill Hall Library , sharing with Universities at Medway. In the university established the School of continuing education in the centre of Tonbridge , extending its coverage to the entire county of Kent. The University is divided into three faculties, humanities, sciences and social sciences, which are further sub-divided into 20 schools:. The original plan was to have no academic sub-divisions within the three faculties initially Humanities, Social Sciences and Natural Sciences and to incorporate an interdisciplinary element to all degrees through common first year courses "Part I" in each faculty, followed by specialist study in the second and final years "Part II".
However, the interdisciplinary approach proved increasingly complex for two reasons. The levels of specialisation at A Levels meant that many students had not studied particular subjects for some years and this made it impossible to devise a course that both covered areas unstudied by some and did not bore others.
This proved an especial problem in Natural Sciences, where many Mathematics students had not studied Chemistry at A Level and vice versa. Additionally many subjects, particularly those in the Social Sciences, were not taught at A Level and required the first year as a grounding in the subject rather than an introduction to several different new subjects. Problems were especially encountered in the Faculty of Natural Sciences where the differing demands of Mathematics and physical sciences led to two almost completely separate programmes and student bases.
Substantial change to this structure did not come until the s, driven more by national government policy than curricular demands, which were, after all, very flexible by nature. To meet these accountancy requirements, Kent required for the first time that each member of staff declare a single discipline they would be affiliated with in future. When departments were formed in the early s this led to a great deal of reorganisation of staff, and destroyed many existing inter-disciplinary relationships.
Following the formation of departments, finance was devolved to departments based on how many students were taught.
This quickly evolved into undermining the interdisciplinary context further, as departments sought to control finance by increasing the amount of specialist teaching in the first year. The school offers master's degrees in international relations theory and international conflict analysis, along with an LLM in international law. In a new department, the Kent School of Architecture, began teaching its first students. The University is divided into six colleges, each named after distinguished scholars.
Colleges have academic schools, lecture theatres, seminar rooms and halls of residence. Each college has a Master, who is responsible for student welfare within their college. In chronological order of construction they are:. The university also has an associate college named Chaucer College. There was much discussion about the names adopted for most of the colleges with the following alternative names all in consideration at one point or another: Caxton, after William Caxton ; for Keynes: The name for the College proved especially contentious and was eventually decided by a postal ballot of members of the Senate, choosing from: Each college has residential rooms, lecture theatres, study rooms, computer rooms and social areas.
The intention of the colleges was that they should not be just Halls of residence , but complete academic communities. Each college except Woolf has its own bar, all rebuilt on a larger scale, and originally its own dining hall only Rutherford still has a functioning dining hall; Darwin's is hired out for conferences and events; Keynes's was closed in and converted into academic space, but in Dolche Vita was expanded and became the dining hall for Keynes students in catered accommodation after Keynes's expansion in ; and Eliot's was closed in There was a great clapping as she passed down the room to her table.
This morning about half past 8 came a message from the Grand Duke [of Hesse] asking us whether we could be at the theatre at 9 as he would show us the stage. We bustled up and arrived only a few minutes late. It was most entertaining; we were taken into every corner, above and below.
We descended through trap doors and mounted into Valhalla. We saw all the properties, and all the mechanism of the Rhine maidens; we explored the dressing rooms, sat in the orchestra and rang the Parsifal bells! The Grand Duke was extremely cheerful and agreeable--he's quite young--and of course everyone was hats off and anxious to show us all we wanted to see. It's a very extraordinary place, the stage; the third scene of Siegfried was set.
We shall feel quite at home when we see it to-night. Hugo is delighted with it all. He was much impressed by the Walküre though he says it will take a great deal to make him a Wagnerian.
He really is one of the most delightful people in the world. The Harrachs, you will be glad to hear, thought him very beautiful. Well, I'll tell you--it's awful! I think if I had known exactly what was before me I should not have faced it, but fortunately did not, and I look back on it with unmixed satisfaction--and forward to other things with no further apprehension. We left here on Friday at 2: Two German men turned up at the Refuge.
Madame Castillan gave us a very good supper and I went at once to bed. I got off at 4: In the afternoon, there arrived a young Englishman called Turner with Rodier as guide and a porter. I went out to watch the beautiful red light fading from the snows and rocks. The Meije looked dreadfully forbidding in the dusk. When I came in I found that Mathon had put my rug in a corner of the shelf which was the bed of us all and what with the straw and my cloak for a pillow I made myself very comfortable.
We were packed as tight as herrings, Mr. Turner next to me, then the two Germans and Rodier. Mathon and the porters lay on the ground beneath us. Our night lasted from 8 till 12, but I didn't sleep at all. Marius lighted a match and looked at his watch.
It was ten o'clock. It seemed an odd view of 10 p. We all got up soon after 12 and I went down to the river and washed a little. It was a perfect night, clear stars and the moon not yet over the hills.
We left half an hour later, 1 a. Mathon carried a lantern till we got on to the snow when it was light enough with only the moon. This was the first time I had put on the rope. We had about three hours up very nice rock, a long chimney first and then most pleasant climbing. Then we rested again for a few minutes. I had been in high feather for it was so easy, but ere long my hopes were dashed! We had about two hours and a half of awfully difficult rock, very solid fortunately, but perfectly fearful.
There were two places which Mathon and Marius literally pulled me up like a parcel. I didn't a bit mind where it was steep up, but round corners where the rope couldn't help me! And it was absolutely sheer down. The first half-hour I gave myself up for lost. You see, I had practically never been on a rock before. However, I didn't let on and presently it began to seem quite natural to be hanging by my eyelids over an abyss. It was not till I was over it that Mathon told me that it was the dreaded place.
The Germans got up a quarter of an hour later having climbed up the rock a different way. We left at 9 and reached the summit at It is a red flat stone, almost perpendicular, some 15 feet high, up which you swarm as best you may with your feet against the Meije, and you sit astride, facing the Meije, on a very pointed crest. I sat there while Marius and Mathon went on and then followed them up an overhanging rock of 20 feet or more.
The rope came in most handy--! We stayed on the summit until It was gorgeous, quite cloudless. I went to sleep for half-an-hour. It's a very long way up but it's a longer way down-unless you take the way Mathon's axe took. The cord by which it was tied to his wrist broke on the Cheval Rouge and it disappeared into space.
There's a baddish place going down the Grand Pic. The guides fastened a double rope to an iron bolt and let Mr.
Turner and me down on to a tiny ledge on which we sat and surveyed the Aiguille d'Arve with La Grave in the foreground. Then was a very nasty bit without the double rope-how anyone gets down those places I can't imagine.
Here comes the worst place on the whole Meije. Then Mathon vanished, carrying a very long rope, and I waited. Presently I felt a little tug on the rope.
There were two little humps to hold on to on an overhanging rock and there La Grave beneath and there was me in mid-air and Mathon round the corner holding the rope tight, but the rope was sideways of course-that's my general impression of those ten minutes.
Added to which I thought at the time how very well I was climbing and how odd it was that I should not be afraid. The worst was over then, and the most tedious part was all to come. It took us three hours to get from the Grand Pic to the Pic Central-up and down over endless dents.
There was no difficulty, but there was also no moment when you had not to pay the strictest attention. I felt rather done when we got to the Pic Central. There was an hour of ice and rock till at last we found ourselves on the Glacier du Tabuchet and with thankfulness I put on my skirt again. It was then 3 and we got in at 6: The glacier was at first good then much crevassed. When I got in I found everyone in the Hotel on the doorstep waiting for me and M. Juge let off crackers, to my great surprise.
I went to bed and knew no more till 6 this morning, when I had five cups of tea and read all your letters and then went to sleep again until ten. I'm really not tired but my shoulders and neck and arms feel rather sore and stiff and my knees are awfully bruised. She comes back to England in the middle of September, well pleased, as shown by her letters, with her progress in climbing. In November she starts for Jerusalem, with many hopes and plans, including learning more Arabic.
Fritz Rosen was then German Consul at Jerusalem. He had married Nina Roche, whom we had known since she was a child, the daughter of Mr. Roche of the Garden House, Cadogan Place.
Charlotte Roche was Nina's sister. They made everything easy for Gertrude. On the way she writes a long letter from Smyrna, where everyone was most kind and hospitable. She describes the "Mediterranean race " to which the inhabitants of Smyrna belong]. It speaks no language though it will chatter with you in Half a dozen, it has no native land though it is related by marriage to all Europe, and with the citizens of each country it will talk to its compatriots and itself as " we "; it centres round no capital and is loyal to no government though it obeys many.
Cheerful, careless, contented, hospitable to a fault, it may well be all, for it is divested of all natural responsibilities, it has little to guard and little to offer but a most liberal share in its own inconceivably hugger mugger existence. Kindness is its distinctive quality, as far-as I have sampled it, and I hope I may have many opportunities of sampling it further. The pilgrims are camped out all over the deck. They bring their own bedding and their own food and their passage from Odessa costs them some 12 roubles.
They undergo incredible hardships: Here I am most comfortably installed. I am two minutes' walk from the German Consulate. My apartment consists of a very nice bedroom and a big sitting room, both opening on to a small vestibule which in its turn leads out on to the verandah which runs all along the first story of the hotel courtyard with a little garden in it.
I pay 7 francs a day including breakfast, which is not excessive. My housemaid is an obliging gentleman in a fez who brings me my hot bath in the morning and is ready at all times to fly round in my service.
I spent the morning unpacking and turning out the bed and things out of my sitting room; it is now most cosy-two armchairs, a big writing table, a square table for my books, an enormous Kiefert map of Palestine lent me by Uncle Tom and photographs of my family on the walls. The floor is of tiles but they have laid down a piece of carpet on it.
There is a little stove in one corner and the wood fire in it is most acceptable. I propose buying a horse! The keep is very little, Dr. Rosen says, and you see the alternative would be to use theirs. Now they have only 3 for their 3 selves and I already have all my meals except breakfast with them, so don't think I can infringe further on their hospitality.
We got in soon after 8, and the kind Rosens came on board with a kavass and carried me off to a very nice hotel where we breakfasted. The garden was full of parrots and monkeys which breakfasted also when I had finished. It was a delicious sunny day. We drove round about Jaffa, caught the only train at 1: It was 5 before we arrived, Charlotte met us. The Consulate is small but very comfy, all the rooms open on to a long central living room which is full of beautiful Persian things.
The two boys were much excited by my arrival and greeted me with enthusiasm. They are perfect dears, these people. I feel as if I should love them very much indeed. And so charming about all arrangements, hospitality and kindness itself. Dickson at the English consulate. One's first impression of Jerusalem is extremely interesting, but certainly not pleasing. The walls are splendid Saracenic on Jewish foundations , but all the holy places are terribly marred by being built over with hideous churches of all the different sects.
There is no space to insert in extenso her long and interesting letters from Jerusalem, where she was entirely happy learning Arabic, exploring her surroundings, and being admitted into the delightful intimacy of the Rosens. But some extracts from the letters are given here. This morning I went out with Charlotte and the children I have not Yet got my teacher.
The two boys rode on a donkey and looked angels. They are delicious children. I saw a charming little horse, a bay, very well bred with lovely movements rather showy, but light and strong and delightful in every way We have embarked on negotiations for him which promise to take some time as they now ask 40 pounds and my price is 18 to 20!
He comes of a well-known stock so that I should run no risk of losing on him when I sell him. My saddle had to be wrapped round him! This morning I had my first lesson. My teacher's name is Khalil Dughan and he is exactly what I want. I learnt more about pronunciation this morning than I have ever known. In the afternoon, Nina, Dr. December 13th, My days are extremely full and most agreeable. I either have a lesson or work alone every morning for 4 hours-the lesson only lasts one and a half hours.
I have 3 morning and 3 afternoon lessons a week. I am just beginning to understand a little of what I hear and to say simple things to the servants, but I find it awfully difficult. The pronunciation is past words, no western throat being constructed to form these extraordinary gutturals. Still it's really interesting. We lunch at Then I come home to my work till 7 when I dress and go in to dinner. I aim at being back by 10 to get another hour's work but this doesn't always happen, especially now when Nina is very busy preparing a Xmas tree and we spend our evenings tying up presents and gilding walnuts, Dr.
My horse is much admired. My teacher, also, is a success. He has the most charming fund of beautiful oriental stories and I make him tell them to me by the hour as I want to get used to the sound of words.
He is a Christian and his family claims to have been Crusaders. He has given me a lecture of his, written out in English on the customs of the Arabs. It begins "The Arabs are the oldest race on earth; they date from the Flood!! That means it's dressing time. The days fly here so that I scarcely know how to catch at them for a moment's time to write to you.
It is now 11 p. I may say in passing that I don't think I shall ever talk Arabic, but I go on struggling with it in the hope of mortifying Providence by my persistence.
I now stammer a few words to my housemaid--him of the fez--and he is much delighted. With Charlotte, who is a most spirited companion, I explored a great part of the inner town.
We are quite the family party and I love them all. The boys are angels. The first night of rain I was awakened by a rushing sound of water and found that it was falling in sheets on to my pillow! I took up my bed and walked and spent the rest of the night in peace. It has rained quite persistently for 5 days. You may imagine how I say 'Heil dir, Sonne! Yesterday the Rosens had a Xmas tree for all the German children. It was most successful and the children were dears.
I am beginning to feel very desperate about Arabic and I am now going to try a new plan. A Syrian girl is to come and spend an hour with me 3 Or 4 times a week and talk to me. I shall take her out walks sometimes, if she is satisfactory, and converse with her. It is an awful language. Will You order Heath to send me out a wide gray felt sun hat not double, but it must be a regular Terai shape and broad brimmed to ride in, and to put a black velvet ribbon round it With Straight bows.
My Syrian girl is charming and talks very Prettily but with a strong local accent. It adds enormously to one's difficulties that one has to learn a patois and a purer Arabic at the same time. I took her out for a long walk on Friday afternoon and went photographing about Jerusalem. She was much entertained, though she was no good as a guide, for she had never been in the Jewish quarter though she has lived all her life here!
That's typical of them. I knew my way, however, as every Englishwoman would-it's as simple as possible. She came with us on the following day on a most delightful expedition.
We started at 9 in the morning-it was Sunday and therefore a legitimate holiday-and rode down the Valley of Hinnon and all along the brook Kedron which is dry at this season through a deep valley full of immensely old olive trees and rock tombs scarcely older.
Then up a long hill and down on the other side into a shallow naked valley, where there were many encampments of the black Bedouin tents, and so into an extraordinary gorge called the Valley of Fire. The rock lies in natural terraces and is full of caves; the Brook Kedron it had rejoined us in a roundabout way has cut the steepest, deepest cleft for its bed and on either side rise these horizontal layers of stone.
They have been a regular city of anchorites, each living in his cave and drawing his ladder up behind him when he went in. Half a mile or so further on lies the citadel of this cave town, the Monastery of Mar Saba, itself half cave and half building, its long walls and towers creeping up the steep rock, the dome of its chapel jutting out from it, and the irregular galleries and rows of cells hanging out over a precipice.
The rock itself is full of little square windows and these are the cave cells and probably about as old as St. Saba who lived in the 6th century. What a terrible time it is.
I feel such a beast to be writing to you about my pleasant doings in the midst of all this, still I can do no good to you all by being very anxious. On Wednesday we rode down to the Dead Sea, over a long stretch of country on which grew thorny plants, then through a curious belt of hard mud heaps, then along the Jordan valley and finally across a bit of absolute desert, white with salt and plantless.
It was a glorious day, bright and hot. I was thrilled by your account of your coat-it sounds too beautiful. I am extremely happy and much amused, and I am very busy with Arabic. Whenever I can I get Ferideh to come and spend the afternoon with me, but as she teaches in a school, I can usually only get her on a Saturday. She comes to tea with me, however, two other days a week and we converse for an hour.
I often go walking alone of an afternoon and explore the surrounding country And nearly always find some exciting flower among the rocks. The earliest flower place is the Valley of Hinnon. I went there yesterday afternoon for starch hyacinths and cyclamen and had a tremendous scramble. As I came back along the Road I met an Arab who greeted me avffably and told me he had seen me climbing on the rocks.
So we walked home together We had a long talk--my conversations are limited to rather simple subjects. The first thing they always say is, "We have heard that there is a great deal of water in your country. I am just beginning to feel my feet after a fearful struggle.
The first fortnight was perfectly desperate--I thought I should never be able to put two words together. Added to the fact that the language is very difficult there are at least three sounds almost impossible to the European throat. The worst I think is a very much aspirated H. I can only say it by holding down my tongue with one finger, but then you Can't carry on a conversation with your finger down your throat can you?
My little girl Ferideh Yamseh is a great success. She talks the dialect, but that is all the better as I want to understand the people of hereabouts. I went to visit her and her family after dinner yesterday--they are quite close.
It was most amusing. I found the mother a pretty charming woman who has had ten children and looks ridiculously young they marry at Two sisters and presently a brother came in. The mother talks nothing but Arabic so the visit was conducted in that language with great success Ferideh interpreting from time to time.
I was regaled on cocoa, a very sweet Arab pastry and pistachios which I love and shown all the photographs of all their relations down to the last cousin twice removed. My Sheikh has just told me that Ladysmith is relieved I do hope it is true and that this is the beginning of good news. I am sending you a little packet of seeds. They are more interesting for associations sake than for the beauty of the plant--it is the famous and fabulous mandrake. By the way the root of the mandrake grow to a length of 2 yards, so I should think somebody shrieks when it is dug up-if not the mandrake, then the digger.
I took Ferideh for a drive and a walk yesterday and talked Arabic extremely badly and felt desponding about it. However there is nothing to be done but to struggle on with it. I should like to mention that there are five words for a wall and 36 ways of forming the plural.
And the rest is like unto it. It ought to reach you in a week as it goes by a good post via Egypt. The posts are arranged thus: Sunday and Monday outgoing posts and the rest of the week nothing. Nina and I rode this afternoon, heavenly weather. We went an exploring expedition through a lovely valley under a place called Malba. The path of course awful. In one place we had to get off, pull down a wall and lead our horses over it.
There are no decent paths at all, only the hard high road. I so often wish for you--always when I'm making a nice expedition. Next spring let us come here together.
Anyhow let us have a nice travel together soon. I rode down here yesterday afternoon with Isa, one of the kavasses. We started at 1: It was a most pleasant day for riding, cool and not sunny, today is brilliantly sunny, I came down the last hill in company with a band of Turkish soldiers, ragged, footsore, weary, poor dears!
We held a long conversation. The Russian Pilgrim House we visited last night and found it packed with pilgrims as tight as herrings sleeping in rows on the floor.
Even the courtyard was quite full of them and on a tree an eikon round which a crowd of them were praying, Charlotte and I rode off with Isa about 11 and went down to the Jordan, taking our lunch with us. Bedouin and fellaheen, kavasses in embroidered clothes. Turkish soldiers, Greek priests and Russian peasants, some in furs and top boots and some in their white shrouds, which were to serve as bathing dresses in the holy stream and then to be carried home and treasured up till their owner's death.
We lunched and wandered about for some time, I photographing some of these strange groups--long-haired Russian priests in their shrouds standing praying in the hot sun by the river bank, among the tamarisk bushes and the reeds, every one, men and women, had chains of beads and crucifixes hung round their necks.
The sun was very hot and we waited and waited while those who were going to be baptised signed their names and paid a small fee. We found ourselves ensconced on willow boughs just opposite to the place where the priests were coming down to bless the water.
We waited for about half an hour, then the crowd opened and a long procession of priests came to the water's edge with lighted candles. The shrouded people clambered down the mud banks and stood waist deep In the stream until the moment when the priest laid the cross three times upon the water, then suddenly, with a great firing off of guns, everyone proceeded to baptise himself by dipping and rolling over in the water.
It was the strangest sight. Some of them had hired monks at a small fee to baptise them and they certainly got their money's worth of baptism, for the monks took an infinite pleasure in throwing them over backwards into the muddy stream and holding them under until they were quite saturated. We then rowed back, returned to our horses and got back about 5.
There is a regular commerce apart from all others here to supply the Russian pilgrims with relics, souvenirs and the necessities of Russian peasant life. I bless the typewriter. It is rather terrible to think that Maurice is off; I hoped he wouldn't leave till the end of the month, Anyhow you will telegraph to me on his arrival, won't you, and all items of news you receive from him which can be conveyed by telegram.
He writes in great spirits and it may be that it will be good for him, the out-of-door life there. My last letter I have sent home to be forwarded to him. Do you know the way when something disagreeable happens, that one looks back and tries to imagine what it would have been like if it hadn't happened? That's how I feel about his going. He and Gertrude were bound together by the closest affection and her constant anxiety and solicitude about him is shown in her letters.
It is not very difficult, I must confess, still it's ordinary good Arabic, not for beginners, and I find it too charming for words. Moreover I see that I really have learnt a good deal since I came for I couldn't read just for fun to save my life.
It is satisfactory, isn't it? I look forward to a time when I shall just read Arabic-like that! I really think that these months here will permanently add to the pleasure and interest of the rest of my days! Still there is a lot and a lot more to be done first--SO to work! Sunday, was too many for me. I did not go out at all but sat It home and read Aladdin and looked at the streaming rain.
Monday was a little better. Charlotte and I put on short skirts and thick boots and went for a long walk to a lovely spring she knew of.
We walked down a deep valley which s long as we have known it has been as dry as a bone and where to our surprise we found a deep swift stream, Ain Tulma, our object, was on the other side and as there are no bridges in this country, there being no rivers as a rule there was nothing for it but to take off our shoes and stockings and wade.
The water came above our knees. The other side was too lovely--the banks of the river were carpeted with red anemones, a sheet of them, and to walk by the side of a rushing stream is an unrivalled experience in this country.
When we got to Ain Tulma we found the whole place covered with cyclamen and orchis and a white sort of garlic, very pretty, and the rocks out of which the water comes were draped in maidenhair. There were a lot of small boys, most amiable young gentlemen, who helped us to pick cyclamen, and when I explained that I had no money they said it was a bakshish to me--the flowers. We had a very scrambly walk back, waded the stream again and when we got to a little village at the foot of the hill, we hired some small boys to carry our flowers home for us.
In this village I lost my way and we found ourselves wandering over the flat roofs and Jumping across the streets below! I hurried on as it was 5 and I had a lesson at 5: They were great fun. We had long conversations all the way home. It's such an amusement to be able to understand.
The differences of pronunciation are a little puzzling at first to the foreigner. There are two k's in Arabic--the town people drop the hard k altogether and replace it by a guttural for which we have no equivalent; the country people pronounce the hard k soft and the soft k ch, but they say their gutturals beautifully and use a lot of words which belong to the more classical Arabic. The Bedouins speak the best; they pronounce all their letters and get all the subtlest shades of meaning out of the words.
I must tell you this is a great day--a German post office has been opened, and we expect marvels from it. There is parcel post and all complete and I advise you to put German Post Office on to your letters to me.
One of our kavasses has gone to be Post Office kavass and as I passed down the Jaffa Street he rushed out open armed to greet me and begged me to come in. So in I went and retired behind the counter and shook hands warmly with the two post masters they dined with us a few nights ago and bought 6 stamps to celebrate the occasion--which I didn't pay for, as I had no money--the kavass saying all the time--"Al!
The tourists who were sending off telegrams were rather surprised to see someone seemingly like themselves come in hand in hand with an old Arab and fall into the arms of the officials behind the counter! It was extremely high! To-day came the joyful news of the relief of Ladysmith. My horse is extremely well. We are going for a long ride to-morrow. The R's and I have been planning expeditions. We mean to go for 10 days into Moab about the 18th.
It will be lovely. We shall take tents, Dr. Our great travel is not till the end of April, but I shall go to Hebron some time early in April. By the way, I hope Elsa clung to the Monthly Cousin article and did not allow it to be published elsewhere. The style of it was only suited to that journal, but I'm glad it pleased. It's a gorgeous day. I'm going riding-in my new hat! It appeared regularly from to , and has been preserved as a precious family record. Gertrude revelled in it, and on occasion contributed to it.
I left Jerusalem yesterday soon after 9, having seen my cook at 7 and arranged that he should go off as soon as he could get the mules ready. His name is Hanna--sounds familiar doesn't it!
I rode down to Jerusalem alone--the road was full of tourists, caravans of donkeys carrying tents for cook and Bedouin escorts. I made friends as I went along and rode with first one Bedouin and then another, all of them exaggerating the dangers I was about to run with the hope of being taken with me into Moab.
Half way down I met my guide from Salt, east of Jordan, coming up to meet me. His name is Tarif, he is a servant of the clergyman in Salt and a Christian therefore, and a perfect dear. We rode along together, sometime, but he was on a tired horse, so I left him to come on slowly and hurried down into Jericho where I arrived with a Bedouin at famished. I went to the Jordan hotel.
We then proceeded to the Mudir's for I wanted to find out the truth of the tales I had been told about Moab, but he was out. By this time Tarif and Hanna had arrived and reported the tents to be one and a half hours behind, which seemed to make camping at the Jordan impossible that night. I determined to pass that night in Jericho and make an early start. This morning I got up at 5 and at 6 was all ready, having sent on my mules and Hanna to the Jordan bridge.
I knocked up the Mudir and he said he would send a guide to Madeba to make the necessary arrangements for me. The river valley is wider on the other side and was full of tamarisks in full white flower and willows in the newest of leaf, there were almost no slime pits and when we reached the level of the Ghor that is the Jordan plain behold, the wilderness had blossomed like the rose. It was the most unforgettable sight--sheets and sheets of varied and exquisite colour--purple, white, yellow, and the brightest blue this was a bristly sort of Plant which I don't know and fields of scarlet ranunculus.
Nine-tenths of them I didn't know, but there was the yellow daisy, the sweet-scented mauve wild stock, a great splendid sort of dark purple onion, the white garlic and purple mallow, and higher up a tiny blue iris and red anemones and a dawning pink thing like a linum.
We were now joined by a cheerful couple, from Bethlehem, a portly fair man in white with a yellow keffiyeh that's the thing they wear round their heads bound by ropes of camel hair and falling over the shoulders and a fair beard, riding a very small donkey, and a thinner and darker man walking.
The first one looked like a portly burgher. He asked me if I were a Christian and said he was, praise be to God! I replied piously that it was from God. So we all journeyed on together through the wilderness of flowers and every now and then the silent but amiable Ismael got off to pick me a new variety of plant, while the others enlivened the way by stalking wood pigeons, but the pigeons were far too wily and they let off their breech loaders in vain and stood waist deep in flowers watching the birds flying cheerfully away--with a "May their house be destroyed!
A little higher up we came to great patches of corn sown by the Adwan Bedouins-, Arabs' we call them east of Jordan, they being the Arabs par excellence, just as we call their black tents 'houses,' there being no others. Then goodbye to the flowers! Now we saw a group of black tents far away on a little hill covered with white tombs--Tell Kufrein it is called--and here the barley was in ear and, in the midst of the great stretches of it, little watch towers of branches had been built and a man stood on each to drive away birds and people.
One was playing a pipe as we passed--it was much more Arcadian than Arcadia. We had now reached the bottom of the foothills, and leaving the Ghor behind us, we began to mount. We crossed a stream flowing down the Wady Hisban which is Heshbon of the fish-pools in the Song of Songs at a place called Akweh. It was so wet here that we rode on to a place where there were a few thorn trees peopled by immense crowds of resting birds-they seize on any little bush for there are so few and the Arabs come and burn the bush and catch and cook the birds all in one!
On the top of the first shoulder we came to spreading cornfields. The plan is this--the "Arabs" sow one place this year and go and live somewhere else lest their animals should eat the growing corn. Next year this lies fallow and the fallow of the year before is sown. Over the second shoulder we got on to a stretch of rolling hills and we descended the valley to Ayan Musa, a collection of beautiful springs with in Arab camp pitched above them.
I found the loveliest iris I have yet seen--big and sweet-scented and so dark purple that the hanging down petals are almost black. It decorates my tent now. Half an hour later my camp was pitched a little lower down on a lovely grassy plateau. We were soon surrounded by Arabs who sold us a hen and some excellent sour milk, 'laban' it is called.
While we bargained the women and children wandered round and ate grass, just like goats. The women are unveiled. They wear a blue cotton gown 6 yards long which is gathered up and bound round their heads and their waists and falls to their feet.
Their faces, from the mouth downwards, are tattooed with indigo and their hair hangs down in two long plaits on either side. Our horses and mules were hobbled and groomed. Hanna brought me an excellent cup of tea and at 6 a good dinner consisting of soup made of rice and olive oil very good! My camp lies just under Pisgah. Geyer's love of the theatre came to be shared by his stepson, and Wagner took part in his performances.
In his autobiography Mein Leben Wagner recalled once playing the part of an angel. Following Geyer's death in , Richard was sent to the Kreuzschule , the boarding school of the Dresdner Kreuzchor , at the expense of Geyer's brother.
Begun when he was in school in , the play was strongly influenced by Shakespeare and Goethe. Wagner was determined to set it to music, and persuaded his family to allow him music lessons. By , the family had returned to Leipzig.
Wagner's first lessons in harmony were taken during —31 with Christian Gottlieb Müller. Beethoven became a major inspiration, and Wagner wrote a piano transcription of the 9th Symphony.
In he saw a performance by dramatic soprano Wilhelmine Schröder-Devrient , and she became his ideal of the fusion of drama and music in opera. In Mein Leben , Wagner wrote "When I look back across my entire life I find no event to place beside this in the impression it produced on me," and claimed that the "profoundly human and ecstatic performance of this incomparable artist" kindled in him an "almost demonic fire.
In , Wagner enrolled at the Leipzig University , where he became a member of the Saxon student fraternity. He arranged for his pupil's Piano Sonata in B-flat major which was consequently dedicated to him to be published as Wagner's Op. A year later, Wagner composed his Symphony in C major , a Beethovenesque work performed in Prague in  and at the Leipzig Gewandhaus in In , Wagner's brother Albert managed to obtain for him a position as choir master at the theatre in Würzburg.
This work, which imitated the style of Weber, went unproduced until half a century later, when it was premiered in Munich shortly after the composer's death in Having returned to Leipzig in , Wagner held a brief appointment as musical director at the opera house in Magdeburg  during which he wrote Das Liebesverbot The Ban on Love , based on Shakespeare's Measure for Measure.
This was staged at Magdeburg in but closed before the second performance; this, together with the financial collapse of the theatre company employing him, left the composer in bankruptcy. In June , Wagner moved to Riga then in the Russian Empire , where he became music director of the local opera;  having in this capacity engaged Minna's sister Amalie also a singer for the theatre, he presently resumed relations with Minna during By , the couple had amassed such large debts that they fled Riga on the run from creditors.
Wagner made a scant living by writing articles and short novelettes such as A pilgrimage to Beethoven , which sketched his growing concept of "music drama", and An end in Paris , where he depicts his own miseries as a German musician in the French metropolis.
During this stay he completed his third and fourth operas Rienzi and Der fliegende Holländer. Wagner had completed Rienzi in His relief at returning to Germany was recorded in his " Autobiographic Sketch " of , where he wrote that, en route from Paris, "For the first time I saw the Rhine —with hot tears in my eyes, I, poor artist, swore eternal fidelity to my German fatherland.
Wagner lived in Dresden for the next six years, eventually being appointed the Royal Saxon Court Conductor. Wagner also mixed with artistic circles in Dresden, including the composer Ferdinand Hiller and the architect Gottfried Semper. Wagner's involvement in left-wing politics abruptly ended his welcome in Dresden. Wagner was active among socialist German nationalists there, regularly receiving such guests as the conductor and radical editor August Röckel and the Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin.
Warrants were issued for the revolutionaries' arrest. Wagner had to flee, first visiting Paris and then settling in Zürich  [n 4] where he at first took refuge with a friend, Alexander Müller. Wagner was to spend the next twelve years in exile from Germany. He had completed Lohengrin , the last of his middle-period operas, before the Dresden uprising, and now wrote desperately to his friend Franz Liszt to have it staged in his absence.
Liszt conducted the premiere in Weimar in August Nevertheless, Wagner was in grim personal straits, isolated from the German musical world and without any regular income. In , Julie, the wife of his friend Karl Ritter, began to pay him a small pension which she maintained until With help from her friend Jessie Laussot, this was to have been augmented to an annual sum of 3, Thalers per year; but this plan was abandoned when Wagner began an affair with Mme. Wagner even planned an elopement with her in , which her husband prevented.
Wagner fell victim to ill-health, according to Ernest Newman "largely a matter of overwrought nerves", which made it difficult for him to continue writing. Wagner's primary published output during his first years in Zürich was a set of essays. In " The Artwork of the Future " , he described a vision of opera as Gesamtkunstwerk "total work of art" , in which the various arts such as music, song, dance, poetry, visual arts and stagecraft were unified.
According to him, they composed music to achieve popularity and, thereby, financial success, as opposed to creating genuine works of art. In " Opera and Drama " , Wagner described the aesthetics of drama that he was using to create the Ring operas. Before leaving Dresden, Wagner had drafted a scenario that eventually became the four-opera cycle Der Ring des Nibelungen.
He initially wrote the libretto for a single opera, Siegfrieds Tod Siegfried's Death , in After arriving in Zürich, he expanded the story with the opera Der junge Siegfried Young Siegfried , which explored the hero's background. He completed the text of the cycle by writing the libretti for Die Walküre The Valkyrie and Das Rheingold The Rhine Gold and revising the other libretti to agree with his new concept, completing them in Partly in an attempt to explain his change of views, Wagner published in the autobiographical " A Communication to My Friends ".
I shall never write an Opera more. As I have no wish to invent an arbitrary title for my works, I will call them Dramas I propose to produce my myth in three complete dramas, preceded by a lengthy Prelude Vorspiel. At a specially-appointed Festival, I propose, some future time, to produce those three Dramas with their Prelude, in the course of three days and a fore-evening [emphasis in original].
Wagner began composing the music for Das Rheingold between November and September , following it immediately with Die Walküre written between June and March He decided to put the work aside to concentrate on a new idea: Tristan und Isolde ,  based on the Arthurian love story Tristan and Iseult. One source of inspiration for Tristan und Isolde was the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer , notably his The World as Will and Representation , to which Wagner had been introduced in by his poet friend Georg Herwegh.
Wagner later called this the most important event of his life. He remained an adherent of Schopenhauer for the rest of his life. One of Schopenhauer's doctrines was that music held a supreme role in the arts as a direct expression of the world's essence, namely, blind, impulsive will. Wagner scholars have argued that Schopenhauer's influence caused Wagner to assign a more commanding role to music in his later operas, including the latter half of the Ring cycle, which he had yet to compose.
A second source of inspiration was Wagner's infatuation with the poet-writer Mathilde Wesendonck , the wife of the silk merchant Otto Wesendonck. Wagner met the Wesendoncks, who were both great admirers of his music, in Zürich in From May onwards Wesendonck made several loans to Wagner to finance his household expenses in Zürich,  and in placed a cottage on his estate at Wagner's disposal,  which became known as the Asyl "asylum" or "place of rest".
During this period, Wagner's growing passion for his patron's wife inspired him to put aside work on the Ring cycle which was not resumed for the next twelve years and begin work on Tristan.
Two of these settings are explicitly subtitled by Wagner as "studies for Tristan und Isolde ". Amongst the conducting engagements that Wagner undertook for revenue during this period, he gave several concerts in with the Philharmonic Society of London , including one before Queen Victoria.
Wagner's uneasy affair with Mathilde collapsed in , when Minna intercepted a letter to Mathilde from him. In an letter to Mathilde, Wagner wrote, half-satirically, of Tristan: This Tristan is turning into something terrible. Perfectly good ones will be bound to drive people mad. In November , Wagner once again moved to Paris to oversee production of a new revision of Tannhäuser , staged thanks to the efforts of Princess Pauline von Metternich , whose husband was the Austrian ambassador in Paris.
The performances of the Paris Tannhäuser in were a notable fiasco. This was partly a consequence of the conservative tastes of the Jockey Club , which organised demonstrations in the theatre to protest at the presentation of the ballet feature in act 1 instead of its traditional location in the second act ; but the opportunity was also exploited by those who wanted to use the occasion as a veiled political protest against the pro-Austrian policies of Napoleon III. The political ban that had been placed on Wagner in Germany after he had fled Dresden was fully lifted in The composer settled in Biebrich , on the Rhine near Wiesbaden in Hesse.
Wagner wrote a first draft of the libretto in ,  and he had resolved to develop it during a visit he had made to Venice with the Wesendoncks in , where he was inspired by Titian 's painting The Assumption of the Virgin. Wagner's fortunes took a dramatic upturn in , when King Ludwig II succeeded to the throne of Bavaria at the age of The young king, an ardent admirer of Wagner's operas, had the composer brought to Munich.
After grave difficulties in rehearsal, Tristan und Isolde premiered at the National Theatre Munich on 10 June , the first Wagner opera premiere in almost 15 years. The premiere had been scheduled for 15 May, but was delayed by bailiffs acting for Wagner's creditors,  and also because the Isolde, Malvina Schnorr von Carolsfeld , was hoarse and needed time to recover.
The conductor of this premiere was Hans von Bülow , whose wife, Cosima , had given birth in April that year to a daughter, named Isolde, a child not of Bülow but of Wagner. Cosima was 24 years younger than Wagner and was herself illegitimate, the daughter of the Countess Marie d'Agoult , who had left her husband for Franz Liszt. Minna had died of a heart attack on 25 January in Dresden. Wagner did not attend the funeral. He only consented after she had two more children with Wagner; another daughter, named Eva, after the heroine of Meistersinger , and a son Siegfried , named for the hero of the Ring.
The divorce was finally sanctioned, after delays in the legal process, by a Berlin court on 18 July Wagner, settled into his new-found domesticity, turned his energies towards completing the Ring cycle. He had not abandoned polemics: He extended the introduction, and wrote a lengthy additional final section. The publication led to several public protests at early performances of Die Meistersinger in Vienna and Mannheim.
In , Wagner decided to move to Bayreuth , which was to be the location of his new opera house. The Wagners moved to the town the following year, and the foundation stone for the Bayreuth Festspielhaus "Festival Theatre" was laid. Wagner initially announced the first Bayreuth Festival, at which for the first time the Ring cycle would be presented complete, for ,  but since Ludwig had declined to finance the project, the start of building was delayed and the proposed date for the festival was deferred.
To raise funds for the construction, " Wagner societies " were formed in several cities,  and Wagner began touring Germany conducting concerts.
Commenting on the struggle to finish the building, Wagner remarked to Cosima: For the design of the Festspielhaus, Wagner appropriated some of the ideas of his former colleague, Gottfried Semper, which he had previously solicited for a proposed new opera house at Munich.
The Festspielhaus finally opened on 13 August with Das Rheingold , at last taking its place as the first evening of the complete Ring cycle; the Bayreuth Festival therefore saw the premiere of the complete cycle, performed as a sequence as the composer had intended.
Wagner was far from satisfied with the Festival; Cosima recorded that months later, his attitude towards the productions was "Never again, never again! Following the first Bayreuth Festival, Wagner began work on Parsifal , his final opera. The composition took four years, much of which Wagner spent in Italy for health reasons. He was once again assisted by the liberality of King Ludwig, but was still forced by his personal financial situation in to sell the rights of several of his unpublished works including the Siegfried Idyll to the publisher Schott.
Wagner wrote a number of articles in his later years, often on political topics, and often reactionary in tone, repudiating some of his earlier, more liberal, views. These include "Religion and Art" and "Heroism and Christianity" , which were printed in the journal Bayreuther Blätter , published by his supporter Hans von Wolzogen.
Wagner completed Parsifal in January , and a second Bayreuth Festival was held for the new opera, which premiered on 26 May. After the festival, the Wagner family journeyed to Venice for the winter. Wagner died of a heart attack at the age of 69 on 13 February at Ca' Vendramin Calergi , a 16th-century palazzo on the Grand Canal.
Wagner's musical output is listed by the Wagner-Werk-Verzeichnis WWV as comprising works, including fragments and projects. It will consist of 21 volumes 57 books of music and 10 volumes 13 books of relevant documents and texts. As at October , three volumes remain to be published. The publisher is Schott Music. Wagner's operatic works are his primary artistic legacy. Unlike most opera composers, who generally left the task of writing the libretto the text and lyrics to others, Wagner wrote his own libretti, which he referred to as "poems".