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There are plenty of Baptists that function the same organizationally, but do not believe the Scriptures nor do they proclaim the gospel. He also improved the dynamo and designed the world's first central electric power station in New York City.

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In , Huey Pierce Long, Jr. By , LSU had the finest facilities in the South, a top-notch faculty of professors, a new medical school, more than 6, students, and a winning football team.

In only eight years, it had risen in size from 88th in the nation to 20th, and it was the 11th largest state university in the nation.

Long financed these improvements by arranging for the state to purchase acreage from the old LSU campus, which adjoined the grounds of the new State Capitol building in downtown Baton Rouge. In the ensuing investigation, at least twenty state officials were indicted. Two committed suicide as the scandal enveloped Governor Richard W. Leche , who received a year federal prison sentence as a result of a kickback scheme. Although some African-Americans students tried to enroll in LSU in , the university did not admit African-Americans until the s.

His case was ultimately decided by the U. Tureaud returned to LSU in A classroom building on the LSU campus is named for his father, the late A. The federal courts mandated full integration for LSU in In , LSU was named a sea-grant college, the 13th university in the nation to be so designated. In addition to accepting displaced students, university officials also took on the challenge of housing and managing many hurricane victims, converting the Pete Maravich Assembly Center into a fully functional field hospital.

Around 3, LSU students volunteered during the months after Katrina, assisting with the administration of medical treatment to some 5, evacuees and screening another 45, for various diseases. The current LSU campus is located on 2, acres 8. A majority of the university's buildings, most of which were built between and , occupy a acre 2. The Olmsted firm originally designed the campus for up to 3, students, but state officials asked the firm to scale the plan back due to budgetary constraints; subsequently, the new plan presented to the state by the Olmsted Brothers centered the campus around a cruciform quadrangle similar to the one that exists on campus today.

For unknown reasons, the Olmsted Brothers firm was dropped from the project, and an architect named Theodore Link , who was well known for designing Union Station in St.

Louis , Missouri , took over the campus master plan. Link collaborated with Wilbur Tyson Trueblood on the project, but remained faithful to the campus that the Olmsted firm had designed. Unfortunately, Link died in before the plan was completed. New Orleans architects Wogan and Bernard completed Link's work and the campus was dedicated on April 30, The first building actually constructed on the present campus was the Swine Palace , the former livestock barn that is now the Reilly Theater.

Most of the current buildings that occupy the university's Quad were completed between and Under Huey Long, the governor from to , LSU "more than doubled its enrollment despite the Great Depression ; its standing had risen to Grade A; dormitories and buildings for departments of music, dramatic arts, and physical education had been completed; other buildings were soon to start, and costs of attendance had been lowered within the reach of many.

Because the original campus was designed to accommodate 1, students, space is now at a premium at LSU. During the s, LSU officials created a set of design guidelines that call for all newly- constructed buildings to have an Italian Renaissance flavor. Although the Olmsted firm had originally envisioned a Spanish or Mexican style design for the university, Link designed the campus with tan stucco walls, red-tiled rooftops, and extensive porticoes in an attempt to emulate the architecture of Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio.

The design of Hill Memorial Library was loosely based on that of the Boston Public Library, which was the first public library in the U. The flanking academic buildings that formed the rest of the Quad represented the major disciplines at the university, and their placement was modeled after that of buildings on the University of Virginia's campus, which was designed by Thomas Jefferson. Nine LSU buildings, including the library and the academic buildings for dairying and physics, were constructed by George A.

Caldwell , a native of Abbeville. Caldwell designed twenty-six public buildings in Louisiana. The campus is known for the 1, live oak trees that shade the ground of the university. Many of the azaleas , crepe myrtles , ligustrum, and camellias planted in the quadrangle were added to the campus in the s. Through the LSU Foundation's "Endow an Oak" program, individuals and groups are able to endow live oaks across the university's campus. Forty-six of the enlisted resources were considered contributing buildings and structures.

The LSU Campus Mounds , which are part of a larger mound group spread throughout the state, are located near the northwestern corner of the campus and were built an estimated 5, years ago.

In addition, LSU owns and operates the J. Louisiana State University is ranked rd in the national universities category and 63rd among public universities by the U. LSU's main library collection, numbering almost three million volumes, is housed in Troy H. Middleton Library on the main quadrangle of the university.

It is both a general use library and a U. The LSU Libraries' subject strengths include Louisiana materials, sugar culture and technology, Southern history, agriculture, petroleum engineering, plant pathology, natural history, and various aspects of aquaculture including crawfish, wetlands research, and marine biology.

Regional Depository Library and the U. Patent Depository Library collections are housed in Middleton Library. The Library has been a depository for federal government publications since and has a substantial number of U. The Library became a Regional Depository Library in The Library was designated an official depository for U. The patent collection includes all patents issued from to the present. The primary strength of Special Collections resides in the Louisiana and Lower Mississippi Valley Collections, an outstanding integrated collection that consists of materials documenting the history and culture of the region.

It provides rare and early imprints pertaining to the exploration and colonization of the region; books on Louisiana subjects; books by Louisiana authors; Louisiana state documents; extensive manuscript collections, which include the personal papers of important individuals in the history of the region, including the Long family; records of business, professions, and organizations; and extensive photographic collections. The LSU campus houses eight museums that feature original works by students as well as traveling exhibits by local, national, and international artisans.

The museum manifests a decade-long vision to offer LSU and the Baton Rouge community greater access to its diverse art collection, changing exhibitions, education programs, and special events. The museum and its collection were established through a generous gift to LSU in from an anonymous donor who wished to support an institution that would illustrate British and continental influences on early American art and culture in the South.

The museum's significant collection of American and British portraiture, furniture, and decorative arts grew from this foundation. Since its move to Murphy J. Foster Hall in , the museum has continued to expand and is currently one of the nation's largest natural history museums, with holdings of over 2. As the only comprehensive research museum in the south-central United States, the LSU Museum of Natural Science fulfills a variety of scientific and educational roles at the university, including: The variety of people who settled in Louisiana made significant and lasting contributions to the state's unique culture and heritage.

It is one of the few museums that celebrates the day-to-day lives of early Americans, including Native Americans , French and Spanish settlers, Anglo-Americans , Germans, Africans, and Acadians. The Rural Life Museum features several displays and exhibits on the pre-industrial residents of Louisiana. The permanent collection includes tools, utensils, furniture, and farming equipment. The recreated "working plantation" consists of a complex of buildings authentically furnished to reconstruct all the major activities of life on a typical 19th century plantation.

The museum also serves as a research facility for LSU students engaged in heritage conservation studies. In , the sixteen natural history collections at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge were designated by the state legislature as the Louisiana Museum of Natural History.

Together, these collections hold a total of more than 2. There are over student organizations currently active at LSU, including a student government and a total of 38 fraternities and sororities. It is the voice of the LSU student body on matters ranging from university administration to parking and transportation.

A College Council system is also established to designate members of SG to the duties of representing specific academic colleges. Additionally, a Student Union Board representative is elected each spring to represent student interests and oversee programs, events, and regulations of the LSU Student Union.

The Daily Reveille , the university's student newspaper, has been keeping students informed for more than a century. It publishes five days a week during the fall and spring semesters and twice a week during the summer semester. The paper has a circulation of 11, or more. The Daily Reveille, which is funded by advertising and student fees, employs more than 80 students each semester in jobs ranging from writing and editing to design and illustration.

The Daily Reveille was recognized for its outstanding coverage in the — school year with a Pacemaker Award from the Associated Collegiate Press and the Newspaper Association of America Foundation, the highest award granted to student publications in the United States. Princeton Review named The Daily Reveille as the 12th best college newspaper in the nation in its edition of The Best Colleges. Radio on the LSU campus began in when Dr. David Guthrie, a physics professor, patched together a radio transmitter from spare parts.

Call letters KFGC were assigned in the early s. In the station covered the first football game played in Tiger Stadium and thus provided the first broadcast of a football game in the South.

In the s, it switched to FM and became the first educational station in the country to broadcast a college opera. And in the s, it was the first college station to stream audio on the Net. The station is on the air 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, with a format of college alternative music and specialty programming.

All programming and operations are managed by the student staff. Broadcasting on campus cable channel 75, Tiger TV reaches approximately students who live and congregate in common areas on campus, such as residence halls and sorority and fraternity houses.

It employs approximately people each semester giving students the opportunity to be station manager, camera operators, news reporters, programmers, on-air personality, even work with clients to help create TV commercials.

The station mixes news and sports programming with local and national entertainment shows. Tiger TV shares its production equipment and facilities with the Manship School of Mass Communication and is one of the most modern Student television stations in the country. The Greek community at Louisiana State University is composed of 38 organizations, governed by three councils.

These groups work together with University, local, and national affiliates to help achieve the goals and ideals their organizations were founded upon. Students in the LSU Greek community are also active in many areas on campus, outside of their fraternity or sorority.

Greek students are active in over 80 student organizations, including Student Government and various honor societies.

The 9 men's teams compete in baseball , basketball , cross country , football , golf, swimming and diving , tennis, indoor track and field , and outdoor track and field. The 12 women's teams compete in basketball , beach volleyball , cross country , golf, gymnastics , soccer , softball , swimming and diving , tennis, indoor track and field , outdoor track and field , and volleyball. Although originally nicknamed "Deaf Valley" for its excruciating levels of sound, the nickname "Death Valley" caught on instead.

It is legendary for the crowd noise generated by fans. It is the sixth-largest college football stadium in the nation and third-largest stadium in the SEC, holding , fans after its latest expansion in The Tiger Stadium atmosphere is generally considered one of the loudest and most electrifying college football experiences in the country.

During a nationally televised game against Auburn in , ESPN recorded a noise level of decibels at certain points in the game.

In when the No. A similar sound level resulted in the legendary " Earthquake Game " against Auburn in LSU won 7—6 when quarterback Tommy Hodson completed a game-winning touchdown pass to running back Eddie Fuller in the waning seconds of the game. The crowd's roar registered on a seismograph, shaking the ground as much as a small earthquake.

This reached a magnitude of 4. The winner of the game is awarded the " Golden Boot ", a gold-plated trophy that is formed in the shape of the two states. The game was previously played the Friday after Thanksgiving in , and every year between and , except , but starting in , the SEC separated LSU and Arkansas on the final weekend of the regular season.

This rivalry was recently suspended after a payout from LSU. The LSU-Auburn rivalry has become more important in recent years as, since the advent of the SEC's divisional format, the winner has usually ended up winning the West Division as well. The LSU-Ole Miss game, known as the Magnolia Bowl a name selected by the student bodies of both schools has become more formalized over the years, with a large trophy and a large traveling fanbase for both teams present each year.

The LSU-Florida rivalry also has major importance as the two schools won three football national championships between Florida in and ; LSU in LSU is only one of two institutions of higher education in the United States to have a live tiger as their mascot; the other is the University of Memphis. Mike V reigned from — and remained housed in his on-campus habitat until his death due to kidney failure on May 18, at age He was introduced to fans at the home game against Florida on October 6, Its amenities include lush plantings , a waterfall , a flowing stream that empties into a wading pond , and rocky plateaus.

The habitat has, as a backdrop, an Italianate tower - a campanile - that creates a visual link to the Italianate architectural vernacular of LSU's campus. Contrary to popular belief, the song "Hey Fightin' Tigers" is not LSU's fight song, however it is a staple at pep rallies and is often sung by fans before games and after wins.

The School was established by the College of Education of Louisiana State University and has operated under its auspices for over eighty years. This coeducational school exists as an independent system to provide training opportunities for pre- and in-service teachers and to serve as a demonstration and educational research center.

Since the school is part of LSU, students are required to pay tuition. IB is a model curriculum that stresses creativity, inquiry, service, and internationalism. Hill Farm established in by the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station in order to carry out research horticultural crops as part of Louisiana State University's mission as a land-grant university.

During the s a large part of the Farm's land was reallocated for the construction of sorority houses, as a result many of the fruit breeding programs had to be moved to other parts of the state. In the s a new student recreation center and playing fields were created on the site of most of the remaining land, the remaining research programs were moved to the Burden Research Plantation.

Today five acres of the original Hill Farm remain and used primarily as an agriculture teaching facility and community garden. Individual garden plots are nine by five feet 9' X 5' and may be rented by students, faculty, and the community at large. The price per lot has been deliberately kept low in order to support the Farm's mission to "provide access to gardening space, education, and resources necessary for the community to grow food in environmentally sustainable ways as a means of creating a food system where locally produced, affordable and nutritious food is available to all, and where the community can come together to share, play, and inspire one another.

LSU athletes have gone on to recognition for their prominence in their respective sports. Cannon was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in LSU alumni have also been active on both the national and international stage in the fields of politics, academia, and the arts. Such notables include James Carville , who was the senior political adviser to Bill Clinton , and Donna Brazile , the campaign manager of the presidential campaign of Vice-President Al Gore. Hubert Humphrey , the 38th Vice President of the United States, earned a master's degree in political science before becoming the junior United States Senator from Minnesota.

Williams was directly involved with the Bell X-1 program, " Glamorous Glennis ", research flights which led to the first manned flight exceeding the speed of sound in level flight.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see LSU disambiguation. Flagship state university [1] Land-grant , Sea-grant , and Space-grant university. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. National Register of Historic Places.

Louisiana State University traditions. Louisiana State University Laboratory School. List of Louisiana State University alumni. James Carville , former Presidential campaign adviser to Bill Clinton. Edwin Edwards , Governor of Louisiana and U. Representative of Louisiana's 7th district.

Maxime Faget , designer of the Mercury space capsule. Clay Higgins , U. Representative of Louisiana's 3rd district. Representative of Louisiana's 1st district. John Bel Edwards , Governor of Louisiana.

Louisiana portal University portal Dentistry portal. Retrieved August 19, Retrieved October 10, Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved September 4, Due to its location on the Gulf Coast, Louisiana has regularly suffered the effects of tropical storms and damaging hurricanes.

In August , New Orleans and many other low-lying parts of the state along the Gulf of Mexico were hit by the catastrophic Hurricane Katrina. Officials had issued warnings to evacuate the city and nearby areas, but tens of thousands of people, mostly African Americans, stayed behind, many of them stranded. Many people died and survivors suffered through the damage of the widespread floodwaters. In August , an unnamed storm dumped trillions of gallons of rain on southern Louisiana, including the cities of Denham Springs , Baton Rouge , Gonzales, St.

Amant and Lafayette , causing catastrophic flooding. According to the United States Census , 5. According to the US census estimates, the population of Louisiana in was: The major ancestry groups of Louisiana are African American As of , The largest denominations by number of adherents in were the Catholic Church with 1,,; Southern Baptist Convention with ,; and the United Methodist Church with , Non-denominational Evangelical Protestant congregations had , members.

Protestants are concentrated in the northern and central parts of the state and in the northern tier of the Florida Parishes. Because of French and Spanish heritage, and their descendants the Creoles, and later Irish, Italian, Portuguese and German immigrants, southern Louisiana and the greater New Orleans area are predominantly Catholic.

Since Creoles were the first settlers, planters and leaders of the territory, they have traditionally been well represented in politics. For instance, most of the early governors were Creole Catholics. As of [update] both Senators and the Governor were Catholic.

The high proportion and influence of the Catholic population makes Louisiana distinct among Southern states. Jewish communities are established in the state's larger cities, notably New Orleans and Baton Rouge.

In , before the Hurricane Katrina, its population was about 12, Louisiana was among the southern states with a significant Jewish population before the 20th century; Virginia, South Carolina, and Georgia also had influential Jewish populations in some of their major cities from the 18th and 19th centuries.

Later in the 19th century, German Jews began to immigrate, followed by those from eastern Europe and the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Benjamin — , who represented Louisiana in the U. In , Louisiana was ranked as one of the most small business friendly states, based on a study drawing upon data from over 12, small business owners. Industry generates chemical products, petroleum and coal products, processed foods and transportation equipment, and paper products.

Tourism is an important element in the economy, especially in the New Orleans area. The Port of South Louisiana , located on the Mississippi River between New Orleans and Baton Rouge , is the largest volume shipping port in the Western Hemisphere and 4th largest in the world, as well as the largest bulk cargo port in the world.

New Orleans , Shreveport , and Baton Rouge are home to a thriving film industry. Because of its distinctive culture within the United States, only Alaska is Louisiana's rival in popularity as a setting for reality television programs.

Political subdivisions also levy their own sales tax in addition to the state fees. Property taxes are assessed and collected at the local level. As of July , the state's unemployment rate was 5. Louisiana taxpayers receive more federal funding per dollar of federal taxes paid compared to the average state. Neighboring states and the amount of federal spending received per dollar of federal tax collected were: Federal spending in and subsequent years since has been exceptionally high due to the recovery from Hurricane Katrina.

Louisiana is rich in petroleum and natural gas. Petroleum and gas deposits are found in abundance both onshore and offshore in State-owned waters. Louisiana's natural gas reserves account for about 5 percent of the U.

The recent discovery of the Haynesville Shale formation in parts of or all of Caddo, Bossier, Bienville, Sabine, De Soto, Red River, and Natchitoches parishes have made it the world's fourth largest gas field with some wells initially producing over 25 million cubic feet of gas daily. Louisiana was the first site of petroleum drilling over water in the world, on Caddo Lake in the northwest corner of the state. The petroleum and gas industry, as well as its subsidiary industries such as transport and refining , have dominated Louisiana's economy since the s.

Beginning in , Louisiana was sued several times by the U. Interior Department , in efforts by the federal government to strip Louisiana of its submerged land property rights. These control vast stores of reservoirs of petroleum and natural gas. When petroleum and gas boomed in the s, so did Louisiana's economy.

The Louisiana economy as well as its politics of the last half-century cannot be understood without thoroughly accounting for the influence of the petroleum and gas industries.

Since the s, these industries' headquarters have consolidated in Houston , but many of the jobs that operate or provide logistical support to the U. Gulf of Mexico crude-oil-and-gas industry remained in Louisiana as of [update]. List of United States Senators from Louisiana. In , the state moved the capital from New Orleans to Baton Rouge.

Donaldsonville , Opelousas , and Shreveport have briefly served as the seat of Louisiana state government. Louisiana and California whose supreme court is seated in San Francisco are the only two states whose high courts are not headquartered in the state capital. Louisiana has six congressional districts and is represented in the U. House of Representatives by five Republicans and one Democrat. Louisiana had eight votes in the Electoral College for the election.

It lost one House seat due to stagnant population growth in the Census. Louisiana is divided into 64 parishes the equivalent of counties in most other states. Most parishes have an elected government known as the Police Jury, dating from the colonial days. It is the legislative and executive government of the parish, and is elected by the voters. Its members are called Jurors, and together they elect a President as their chairman. A more limited number of parishes operate under home rule charters, electing various forms of government.

This include mayor—council, council—manager in which the council hires a professional operating manager for the parish , and others. The Louisiana political and legal structure has maintained several elements from the times of French and Spanish governance.

One is the use of the term " parish " from the French: Another is the legal system of civil law based on French, German, and Spanish legal codes and ultimately Roman law , as opposed to English common law. Louisiana's civil law system is what the majority of nations in the world use, especially in Europe and its former colonies, excluding those that derive from the British Empire.

Although the Napoleonic Code and Louisiana law draw from common legal roots, the Napoleonic Code was never in force in Louisiana, as it was enacted in , after the United States had purchased and annexed Louisiana in While the Louisiana Civil Code of has been continuously revised and updated since its enactment, it is still considered the controlling authority in the state. Differences are found between Louisianan civil law and the common law found in the other U. While some of these differences have been bridged due to the strong influence of common law tradition, [] the civil law tradition is still deeply rooted in most aspects of Louisiana private law.

Thus property, contractual, business entities structure, much of civil procedure, and family law, as well as some aspects of criminal law, are still based mostly on traditional Roman legal thinking. In , Louisiana became the first state to offer the option of a traditional marriage or a covenant marriage.

To divorce under a covenant marriage, a couple must demonstrate cause. Marriages between ascendants and descendants, and marriages between collaterals within the fourth degree i. Same-sex marriages are now performed statewide.

Louisiana is a community property state. From to , a period when Louisiana had effectively disfranchised most African Americans and many poor whites by provisions of a new constitution, [] this was essentially a one-party state dominated by white Democrats. Elites had control in the early 20th century, before populist Huey Long came to power as governor.

The franchise for whites was expanded somewhat during these decades, but blacks remained essentially disfranchised until after the civil rights movement of the midth century, gaining enforcement of their constitutional rights through passage by Congress of the Voting Rights Act of Since the s, when civil rights legislation was passed under President Lyndon Johnson to protect voting and civil rights, most African Americans in the state have affiliated with the Democratic Party.

In the same years, many white social conservatives have moved to support Republican Party candidates in national, gubernatorial and statewide elections. The previous Republican Senator, John S. Harris , who took office in during Reconstruction, was chosen by the state legislature under the rules of the 19th century.

Louisiana is unique among U. All candidates, regardless of party affiliation, run in a nonpartisan blanket primary or " jungle primary " on Election Day. This run-off method does not take into account party identification; therefore, it is not uncommon for a Democrat to be in a runoff with a fellow Democrat or a Republican to be in a runoff with a fellow Republican.

Congressional races have also been held under the jungle primary system. All other states except Washington and California use single-party primaries followed by a general election between party candidates, each conducted by either a plurality voting system or runoff voting , to elect Senators, Representatives, and statewide officials. Between and , federal congressional elections were run under a closed primary system — limited to registered party members.

However, upon the passage of House Bill , Louisiana again adopted a nonpartisan blanket primary for its federal congressional elections. Louisiana has six seats in the U. House of Representatives, five of which are currently held by Republicans and one by a Democrat. The state lost a House seat at the end of the th Congress due to stagnant population growth as recorded by the United States Census.

Louisiana is not classified as a " swing state " for future presidential elections, as since the late 20th century, it has regularly supported Republican candidates. The state's two U. Louisiana's statewide police force is the Louisiana State Police. It began in with the creation of the Highway Commission. In , a second branch, the Bureau of Criminal Investigations, was formed.

In , the State Highway Patrol was authorized to carry weapons. On July 28, , the two branches were consolidated to form the Louisiana Department of State Police; its motto was "courtesy, loyalty, service". In , this office was abolished and became a division of the Department of Public Safety, called the Louisiana State Police. In , the Criminal Investigation Bureau was reorganized.

The State Police are primarily a traffic enforcement agency, with other sections that delve into trucking safety, narcotics enforcement, and gaming oversight. The elected sheriff in each parish is the chief law enforcement officer in the parish. They are the keepers of the local parish prisons, which house felony and misdemeanor prisoners. They are the primary criminal patrol and first responder agency in all matters criminal and civil.

They are also the official tax collectors in each parish. The sheriffs are responsible for general law enforcement in their respective parishes.

Orleans Parish is an exception, as the general law enforcement duties fall to the New Orleans Police Department. Before , Orleans parish was the only parish to have two sheriff's offices. Orleans Parish divided sheriffs' duties between criminal and civil, with a different elected sheriff overseeing each aspect. In , a bill was passed which eventually consolidated the two sheriff's departments into one parish sheriff responsible for both civil and criminal matters.

In , Louisiana had a higher murder rate Louisiana is the only state with an annual average murder rate In a different kind of criminal activity, the Chicago Tribune reports that Louisiana is the most corrupt state in the United States.

According to the Times Picayune , Louisiana is the prison capital of the world. Many for-profit private prisons and sheriff-owned prisons have been built and operate here. Louisiana's incarceration rate is nearly five times Iran's, 13 times China's and 20 times Germany 's. Minorities are incarcerated at rates disproportionate to their share of the state's population. Both these units have served overseas during the War on Terror in either Iraq , Afghanistan , or both.

The Louisiana Air National Guard has over 2, airmen and its th Fighter Wing has likewise seen overseas service in combat theaters. Louisiana State University is the largest and most comprehensive university in Louisiana.

The act allows public school teachers to use supplemental materials in the science classroom which are critical of established science on such topics as the theory of evolution and global warming. Louisiana is nominally the least populous state with more than one major professional sports league franchise: The Baby Cakes are currently affiliated with the Miami Marlins. As of , Louisiana was the birthplace of the most NFL players per capita for the eighth year in a row.

Louisiana is home to many, especially notable are the distinct culture of the Louisiana Creoles , typically people of color, descendants of free mixed-race families of the colonial and early statehood periods. The French colony of La Louisiane struggled for decades to survive. Conditions were harsh, the climate and soil were unsuitable for certain crops the colonists knew, and they suffered from regional tropical diseases.

Both colonists and the slaves they imported had high mortality rates. The settlers kept importing slaves, which resulted in a high proportion of native Africans from West Africa, who continued to practice their culture in new surroundings. As described by historian Gwendolyn Midlo Hall , they developed a marked Afro-Creole culture in the colonial era. At the turn of the 18th century and in the early s, New Orleans received a major influx of white and mixed-race refugees fleeing the violence of the Haitian Revolution , many of whom brought their slaves with them.

This added another infusion of African culture to the city, as more slaves in Saint-Domingue were from Africa than in the United States. They strongly influenced the African-American culture of the city in terms of dance, music and religious practices. Over time, there developed in the French colony a relatively large group of Creoles of Color gens de couleur libres , who were primarily descended from African slave women and French men later other Europeans became part of the mix, as well as some Native Americans.

Often the French would free their concubines and mixed-race children, and pass on social capital to them. They might educate sons in France, for instance, and help them enter the French Army for a career. They also settled capital or property on their mistresses and children. The free people of color gained more rights in the colony and sometimes education; they generally spoke French and were Roman Catholic. Many became artisans and property owners.

Over time, the term "Creole" became associated with this class of Creoles of Color , many of whom achieved freedom long before the Civil War. Wealthy French Creoles generally maintained town houses in New Orleans as well as houses on their large sugar plantations outside town along the Mississippi River. New Orleans had the largest population of free people of color in the region; they could find work there and created their own culture, marrying among themselves for decades.

The British forcibly separated families and evicted them from Acadia because they refused to vow loyalty to the new British regime. Some escaped the British remained in French Canada. They developed a distinct rural culture there that was different from that of the French Creole colonists in the New Orleans area. Intermarrying with others in the area, they developed what was called Cajun music, cuisine and culture.

Until the s, the term "Cajun" was considered somewhat derogatory. They developed four main communities, but many relocated to what is modern-day St. According to a study by the Modern Language Association, among persons five years old and older, [] Historically, Native American peoples in the area at the time of European encounter were seven tribes distinguished by their languages: Of these, only Tunica, Caddo and Choctaw still have living native speakers, although several other tribes are working to teach and revitalize their languages.

Other Native American peoples migrated into the region, escaping from European pressure from the east. Among these were Alabama , Biloxi, Koasati, and Ofo peoples. Starting in the s, French colonists began to settle along the coast and founded New Orleans.

They established French culture and language institutions. They imported thousands of slaves from tribes of West Africa, who spoke several different languages. In the creolization process, the slaves developed a Louisiana Creole dialect incorporating both French and African forms, which colonists adopted to communicate with them, and which persisted beyond slavery.

In the 20th century, there were still people of mixed race, particularly, who spoke Louisiana Creole French. During the 19th century after the Louisiana Purchase by the United States, English gradually gained prominence for business and government due to the shift in population with settlement by numerous Americans who were English speakers.

Many ethnic French families continued to use French in private. Slaves and some free people of color also spoke Louisiana Creole French. The State Constitution of gave English official status in legal proceedings, but use of French remained widespread. Subsequent state constitutions reflect the diminishing importance of French. The constitution, passed during the Reconstruction era before Louisiana was re-admitted to the Union, banned laws requiring the publication of legal proceedings in languages other than English.

Subsequently, the legal status of French recovered somewhat, but it never regained its pre- Civil War prominence. Several unique dialects of French, Creole, and English are spoken in Louisiana.

Dialects of the French language are: Colonial French and Houma French. Louisiana Creole French is the term for one of the Creole languages. Two unique dialects developed of the English language: Louisiana English , a French-influenced variety of English; and what is informally known as Yat , which resembles the New York City dialect , particularly that of historical Brooklyn.

Both accents were influenced by large communities of immigrant Irish and Italians, but the Yat dialect, which developed in New Orleans, was also influenced by French and Spanish. Colonial French was the dominant language of white settlers in Louisiana during the French colonial period; it was spoken primarily by the French Creoles native-born.

In addition to this dialect, the mixed-race people and slaves developed Louisiana Creole , with a base in West African languages. The limited years of Spanish rule at the end of the 18th century did not result in widespread adoption of the Spanish language.

French and Louisiana Creole are still used in modern-day Louisiana, often in family gatherings. English and its associated dialects became predominant after the Louisiana Purchase of , after which the area became dominated by numerous English speakers. In some regions, English was influenced by French, as seen with Louisiana English. Colonial French , although mistakenly named Cajun French by some Cajuns, has persisted alongside English. Renewed interest in the French language in Louisiana has led to the establishment of Canadian-modeled French immersion schools, as well as bilingual signage in the historic French neighborhoods of New Orleans and Lafayette.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the U. For other uses, see Louisiana disambiguation. List of Louisiana state parks and List of Louisiana state historic sites. List of numbered highways in Louisiana.

French colonization of the Americas. History of slavery in Louisiana. Louisiana in the American Civil War. Religion in Louisiana [] religion percent Protestant. List of municipalities in Louisiana , List of Louisiana metropolitan areas , and List of Louisiana locations by per capita income. Largest cities or towns in Louisiana Source: Louisiana locations by per capita income. Parishes 64 Municipalities School districts. United States Senators See also: Steve Scalise R 2: Cedric Richmond D 3: Clay Higgins R 4: John Fleming R 5: Ralph Abraham R 6: Elections in Louisiana and Political party strength in Louisiana.

List of law enforcement agencies in Louisiana. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. List of school districts in Louisiana , List of colleges and universities in Louisiana , and French immersion in Louisiana. List of sports teams in Louisiana and Sports in New Orleans. La Louisiane , [la lwizjan, luz-] ; [9] Louisiana Creole: Retrieved June 14, Archived from the original on September 26, Retrieved August 14, Archived from the original on February 9, Retrieved May 6, Retrieved December 9, United States Geological Survey.

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Barry Lewis, Charles Stout, eds. Mississippian Towns and Sacred Spaces. University of Alabama Press. Archived from the original on June 7, In Rees, Mark A. Archived from the original on December 24, Retrieved October 20, Archived from the original on December 25, Archived from the original PDF on April 25, French Roots in the Illinois Country: The Mississippi Frontier in Colonial Times. Urbana and Chicago, Ill.: University of Illinois Press.

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Retrieved August 19, Baton Rouge Area Chamber. Retrieved August 22, Retrieved August 20, Archived from the original on November 17, Retrieved November 16, April 1, to July 1, ". Archived from the original CSV on December 23, Retrieved December 26, Archived from the original on February 15, Retrieved February 18, United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 5, Retrieved on March 20, Archived from the original on July 25, Retrieved March 20, Retrieved November 15, Yet, Louisiana is still unusual or exceptional in its extent of aboriginal Catholic settlement and influence.

Among states in the Deep South discounting Florida's Panhandle and much of Texas the historic role of Catholicism in Louisiana is unparalleled and unique. Among the states of the Union, Louisiana's unique use of the term parish French la parouche or "la paroisse" for county is rooted in the pre-statehood role of Catholic church parishes in the administration of government. The Jewish Information Source Book: Archived from the original on July 12, Registration is open for the spring session of the Sinai Scholars Society, Tulane chapter.

The national organization provides funding for a course on Judaism each semester at more than 50 campuses nationwide. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities, 27 Jul Archived from the original on March 7, Retrieved March 2, Census Bureau Quick Facts". Retrieved December 2, Archived from the original on July 7, Retrieved May 13, Archived from the original on December 2, Retrieved December 25, Retrieved May 16, Archived from the original on October 12,

Diana Aurenque