Herzlichen Glückwunsch an ihren Besitzer. Die Stute La Finessa v. L-Dressur auf Kandarre gewonnen. Die 3-jährige Stute Quikidida , V: Ein unglaublich angenehmes Pferd.
Wir hoffen bei der Stutenschau im Juni in Langenau auf eine Prämierung. Roy Black , M v. Erfolgreiche Stutenleistungsprüfung in Blonhofen am August mit Taloa und Lilac Flavor. Roy Black , Muttter: Hauptaufgabe ist das Trainieren unserer Pferde. Grundkentnisse im Umgang mit Pferden müssen vorhanden sein. Sie war in Günzburg am Sarah Brauckmann konnte mit Ihrem Rhadamantis auch in wieder glänzen und hat wieder eine Plakette für ein erfolgreiches Turnierpferd erhalten.
Und das 3 Jahre hintereinander. Steffi hat mit der Stute A Chestnut Lady den 4. Platz in der Dressur Pferde A in Holzgünz am 1. Im Schritt erhielt sie eine 8,5, Fremdreiter 8,0 und Richter Rittigkeit ebenfalls eine 8,0. Start in einer Dressur Pferde M am 4. August in Biberach die Siegerschleife in Empfang nehmen. Kaiser Karl wurde bei seinem 2. Die Stute My Little Ferrari war am 6. Mai in Babenhausen zur Stutbuchafnahme und wurde mit 7,3 eingetragen. My Little Ferrari v.
Okt in Babenhausen eine sehr gute SLP abgelegt. Freispringen 9,0, Trab 8,75, Fremdreiterin 8,0. Steffi Degen mit Ariane Enterprise. Rhadamantis geht erfolgreich S-Dressur. Das nächste Fohlen ist da: Unser zweites Fohlen ist da: This assent could be expressed either by the States assembled in the Reichstag, or through a duly constituted deputation ; the latter means rarely employed after the Diet became permanent in Assent was determined by majority voting, except in specific matters where consensus was required, mainly in religious matters.
Parts 1 , 2 and 3 of this page are devoted to the Constitution of the Empire: Part 4 looks at the geographical and political structure of the Empire: One has to wait until Conrad II to find Romanum imperium used to designate the lands ruled by the emperor documents of and Curiously, the expression Romana res publica is used with the same meaning contemporaneously.
It is however, occasionally used in non-official documents, such as letters, chronicles, even Papal encyclicals in At the same tine, one finds the expression Romanum regnum Roman realm in an official document of In , the signature of the emperor is described as signum regis invictissimi Henrici tertii, Burgundiorum primi, Romanorum secundi. Correspondingly, the title Rex Romanorum makes its apparition in , and is officially adopted in the Intitulatio in and in the monogram in The phrase sacrum imperium is found again in , , , In , one finds sacratissimum imperium , a phrase occasionally encountered until Otto IV.
The two expressions Romanum imperium and sacrum imperium are used concurrently in official documents for a century, but one does not find the two together until From that date, the new phrase never falls out of use although the shorter formulas continue to be used commonly.
Official documents in the German language show the phrase heiliges Reich or Römisches Reich frequently in documents of Ludwig of Bavaria, but heiliges Römisches Reich is rare; it first appears in It becomes common with Charles IV The last transformation of the official name of the Empire took place in the late 15th c. A similar phrase appears at the Reichstag of The phrase entered the Wahlkapitulation of , by which the emperor promised to reside within dem heiligen Römischen Reiche Teutscher Nation.
From the late 16th c. Other early 16th c. Interestingly, the debate in the 17th c. Increasingly, jurists and writers used the phrase imperium Romano-Germanicum.
Heiliges römisches Reich deutscher Nation. The office was not hereditary, but elective. However, from to , a Habsburg was always Emperor. The reign ended by death, abdication Charles V in or deposition of the emperor. The election of a successor in the lifetime of the empire was practised up to Frederic II's sons Heinrich in and Konrad in It was then abandoned except for Wenceslas in The King of the Romans bore his arms on a shield on the breast of a single-headed eagle sable as opposed to the double-headed eagle of the Emperor.
He had royal rank and came immediately after the Emperor in precedence. He succeeded the emperor immediately, without need for another coronation or Wahlkapitulation , since he had already been crowned and sworn a capitulation at the time of his election. He also ruled the empire in case the emperor was incapacitated as did Joseph I in the last days of his father's reign , but stayed out of the government of the empire otherwise, according to the oath he took upon election.
If no king of the Romans existed, and if either the Emperor was incapacitated or under age sede pleana , or there was no emperor sede vacante , case of an interregnum , the imperial authority was held jointly by two Imperial Vicars Reichsvikarien , although exercised in the name of the emperor in the first case.
By virtue of the Golden Bull, these were the Elector Palatine and the Elector of Saxony, and each had special authority over a part of the empire, depending on which type of law was in force: In Italy, the titular vicar was the duke of Savoy. In the Elector Palatine lost his electorship to Bavaria, and in a new electorship was created for him. Thereafter Bavaria and Pfalz were in dispute as to who was vicar.
In the interregnum both claimed to be vicars and issued documents on that authority, but the arch-chancellor and the other vicar recognized Bavaria, as did emperor Leopold after his election.
In a family pact between the two branches of the Wittelsbach family set forth joint exercise of the vicariate, but this was not accepted by the Reichstag. In the two branches agreed to alternate, with Bavaria starting first in the interregnum. This was accepted by Francis I after his election and by the electors, and later confirmed in by the Reichstag. In the Bavarian branch became extinct and the agreement moot. The imperial vicars exercised the powers of the emperor that were not explicitly reserved to his person, and in doing so were bound by the terms of the deceased emperor's capitulation.
They handled all matters of grace: They exercised the emperor's judicial powers, they collected taxes in his name, nominated to ecclesiastical benefices, and invested vassals with imperial fiefs, whether inherited or newly conceded except for principalities and Fahnlehen. The emperor was formally obliged to ratify the acts of the vicars after his election, although there are instances of such acts being repealed by the Reichshofrat.
The vicariate ended once the new emperor had sworn to uphold his electoral capitulation. The emperor was entitled to have a Household, a real one as well as one "for show" composed of the High Offices of the Empire Erzämter , archiofficia. The four High Offices appear under the Ottonian dynasty: The Golden Bull of assigned them to the lay electors in fact, some electors may have become so because they were High Officers.
After a new electorate was created for the count Palatine, a new office of Arch-Treasurer was created for him, in In , after Bavaria was banned, the elector palatine resumed his office of Arch-Steward, and the office of Arch-Treasurer passed in to the newly created elector of Hanover. In , Bavaria was reinstated, and the elector palatine resumed the office of Treasurer, but Hanover continued to use the title and augmentation of arms until the merger of the Bavarian and Palatine electorates in allowed Hanover to exercise the office.
New offices were planned but never chosen for the electors created in Officers of the Empire Erzamt Holder Augment.
In the exercise of these functions outside of the coronations, the lay electors were represented by the holders of corresponding hereditary offices Erbämter , and some were themselves represented in everyday activities by holders of hereditary offices Hofämter: The corresponding offices in the French Royal household were distinguished by external ornaments rather than augmentations to the coat of arms.
The arms of the Emperor were a double-headed eagle or on a field sable, charged with an escutcheon bearing his personal arms. The reserved rights were divided into the unrestricted jura reservata illimita and restricted jura reservata limita depending on whether the Reichstag was involved or not. They were also divided into exclusive jura reservata exclusiva or concurrent jura reservata communia , depending on whether the individual territories also enjoyed those rights or not.
The emperor delegated the exercise of these rights to officials called counts palatine Hofpfalzgrafen. Such delegated powers were called comitiva , and distinguished into the comitiva minor power to grant majority, legitimize, appoint notaries, grant arms and comitiva major ennoblement and power to delegate the comitiva minor.
The comitiva minor was commonly bestowed to rulers of territories or titular counts, as well as attached to certain positions such as provosts of universities. The comitiva major was rarely bestowed, and it was hereditary in the houses of Pfalz and Schwarzburg. According to his biographer Einhard Vita Karoli Magni , par. Nevertheless, he accepted the title. His official style in documents, as emperor, was: All the Western original sources on Charlemagne's coronation are available.
The title of Emperor was confirmed by Byzantium in Otto I, in , assumed the style of imperator augustus. In he also used the style imperator augustus Romanorum ac Francorum , but reverted the same year to the previous, simpler style, which his successors kept. By the 12th century, the standard style was Dei gratia Romanorum imperator semper augustus , and it remained until the 16th c.
Throughout the Middle Ages, the convention was that the elected king of Germany a kingdom formed by the division of the empire in and the separation of the western Franconian kingdom in was also Emperor of the Romans. His title was royal king of the Germans, or from king of the Romans from his election to his coronation in Rome by the pope; thereafter, he was emperor.
After the death of Frederic II in , however, formal coronation by the pope happened less frequently: The title of "king of the Romans" became less and less reserved for the emperor-elect but uncrowned in Rome; the emperor-elect was either known as German king or simply styled himself "imperator" see the example of Ludwig IV below. The election day became the starting date permanently with Siegmund. Ultimately, Maximilian I changed the style of the emperor in , with papal approval: That is, he was "emperor elect": For this reason, the title king of the Romans Rex Romanorum , sometimes king of the Germans or Rex Teutonicorum came to mean heir-apparent, the successor elected while the emperor was still alive.
The peculiar "translation" of semper augustus appears on a Lehenbrief letter of enfeoffment of in the form zu allen ziden ein merer des heiligen Romischen riches. The emperor had precedence over all Christian monarchs. The emperor's wife, the Empress, also had rank, but not his children, since the office was elective.
The composition of the Reichstag evolved over the Middle Ages. By it had been divided into three colleges or sections:. The status of State of the Empire was originally attached to a particular land, and was a right of the owner or ruler of that land.
The Emperor was chosen by the Elector princes Kurfürsten. This institution emerges sometime in the first half of the 13th c. It appears in the Sachsenspiegel , a compilation of German feudal law written between and Its composition seems to have been set fairly early, by the s at the latest.
Initially the electors nominated a candidate, subject to ratification by the magnates, but fairly quickly their choice became final. Its formal regulation came with the Golden Bull of , although changes were made occasionally. The status of the king of Bohemia was controversial for a long time, because he was not necessarily German; on the other hand, he was the Butler of the Empire, and one theory founded the right to elect the Emperor on holding one of the four high offices.
One view was that the king of Bohemia's vote was meant to be the deciding vote in case of an even split of the other six. The Sachsenspiegel did not include him as an elector, but the Schwabenspiegel did. It took the Golden Bull of to settle the matter definitively. The king of Bohemia did not attend the elections after Wenceslas in the 14th c. The electors elected the king of Germany or king of the Romans who, once crowned, became the Emperor.
Under the Habsburgs, it had become usual for the Emperor to have his oldest son crowned as king of the Romans. At the peace of Westphalia, France and Sweden tried to have the right to elect the king of the Romans transferred to the Reichstag, without success.
Finally, the electoral capitulation of included the stipulation that an election would take place only in case of extended absence, advanced age, permanent incapacity of the Emperor, or other urgent necessity. It was up to the electors to decide to hold an election. They were obligated to give the emperor prior notification, but could proceed without his approval. The electors were free to elect whom they wished, and the Emperor, in his capitulation, promised not to interfere with this freedom or use any form of coercion.
They could, nevertheless, pledge their vote: In the election of , there were none, and the elector of Hanover was free to cast his vote. A spiritual elector could vote even before having been invested by the Pope and received the pallium, as long as he had been invested by the Emperor.
Conversely, an archbishop deprived of his electorate but not of his see could not be replaced as elector and his vote was forfeited as happened to Cologne in A minor's vote was cast by his tutor.
The electors were summoned by the archbishop of Mainz, or else by the archbishop of Trier, normally within a month of the death of the Emperor. The electors met in Frankfurt, as prescribed by the Golden Bull when they didn't, the city protested and it was granted reversals reserving its rights for the future normally within three months of notification.
The Grand Marshal was responsible for the logistics and protection of the electors and their suites. Electors appeared in person, entrusted their vote to another elector, or more often sent an electoral embassy, even if they were present as the king of Bohemia in and , or the elector of Mainz in The ministers presented their credentials to the archbishop of Mainz, who presided over the deliberations, in particular the drafting of the electoral capitulation.
When the moment to vote came, the Grand Marshal ordered all princes, noblemen, ambassadors, representatives etc. The electors proceeded on horseback from the city hall to the cathedral, and convened in the electoral chapel, and swore to choose the worthiest man, and to accept the majority vote.
The elector of Mainz proceeded to collect the votes, starting with Trier and ending with Saxony, and then himself. Electors could vote for themselves, as the king of Bohemia frequently did although formally, a majority voted for him and he then consented. The candidate receiving more than half of the votes was elected. In modern times the votes were unanimous. However, some elections were contentious. The election of was one. Then Maximilian decided to have his grandson Charles elected before his own death, and soon had the commitment of Brandneburg, Cologne, Mainz and the Palatinate, with the vote of Bohemia the minor king Louis II cast by his guardians Maximilian and the king of Poland.
With Maximilian's death all bets were off and negotiations began anew.