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There is also a small Old Catholic parish and an English-speaking parish of the Episcopal Church in the city. Munich has been governed by the SPD for all but six years since This is atypical because Bavaria — and particularly southern Bavaria — has long been identified with conservative politics, with the Christian Social Union gaining absolute majorities among the Bavarian electorate in many elections at the communal, state, and federal levels, and leading the Bavarian state government for all but three years since Bavaria's second most populous city, Nuremberg , is also one of the very few Bavarian cities governed by an SPD-led coalition.
As the capital of the Free State of Bavaria, Munich is an important political centre in Germany and the seat of the Bavarian State Parliament , the Staatskanzlei the State Chancellery and of all state departments.
Since the administrative reform in , Munich is divided into 25 boroughs or Stadtbezirke , which themselves consist of sometimes quite distinct smaller quarters. The city has an eclectic mix of historic and modern architecture, because historic buildings destroyed in World War II were reconstructed, and new landmarks were built.
A survey by the Society's Centre for Sustainable Destinations for the National Geographic Traveller chose over historic destinations around the world and ranked Munich 30th. At the centre of the city is the Marienplatz — a large open square named after the Mariensäule, a Marian column in its centre — with the Old and the New Town Hall. Its tower contains the Rathaus-Glockenspiel. Three gates of the demolished medieval fortification survive — the Isartor in the east, the Sendlinger Tor in the south and the Karlstor in the west of the inner city.
The Karlstor leads up to the Stachus , a grand square dominated by the Justizpalast Palace of Justice and a fountain. The Peterskirche close to Marienplatz is the oldest church of the inner city.
It was first built during the Romanesque period, and was the focus of the early monastic settlement in Munich before the city's official foundation in Peter the Gothic hall-church Heiliggeistkirche The Church of the Holy Spirit was converted to baroque style from onwards and looks down upon the Viktualienmarkt , the most popular market of Munich.
The Frauenkirche is the best known building in the city centre and serves as the cathedral for the Catholic Archdiocese of Munich and Freising.
The nearby Michaelskirche is the largest renaissance church north of the Alps, while the Theatinerkirche is a basilica in Italianate high baroque, which had a major influence on Southern German baroque architecture. Its dome dominates the Odeonsplatz. Other baroque churches in the inner city include the Bürgersaalkirche , the Dreifaltigkeitskirche , the St.
Anna Damenstiftskirche and St. Anna im Lehel , the first rococo church in Bavaria. The Asamkirche was endowed and built by the Brothers Asam , pioneering artists of the rococo period. The large Residenz palace complex begun in on the edge of Munich's Old Town, Germany's largest urban palace, ranks among Europe's most significant museums of interior decoration.
Next door to the Residenz the neo-classical opera, the National Theatre was erected. All mansions are situated close to the Residenz, same as the Alte Hof , a medieval castle and first residence of the Wittelsbach dukes in Munich.
Lehel, a middle-class quarter east of the Altstadt, is characterised by countless well-preserved and in parts excellently reconstructed townhouses, giving a thorough impression of the "old Munich" outside of the main tourist routes.
Lukas is the largest Protestant Church in Munich. Four grand royal avenues of the 19th century with official buildings connect Munich's inner city with its then-suburbs:. Boniface's Abbey was erected. The area around Königsplatz is home to the Kunstareal , Munich's gallery and museum quarter as described below. Louis church , the Bavarian State Library and numerous state ministries and palaces. The southern part of the avenue was constructed in Italian renaissance style, while the north is strongly influenced by Italian Romanesque architecture.
The avenue is framed by elaborately structured neo-Gothic buildings which house, among others, the Schauspielhaus , the Building of the district government of Upper Bavaria and the Museum of Ethnology.
After crossing the river Isar, the avenue circles the Maximilianeum , which houses the state parliament. The avenue crosses the Isar and circles the Friedensengel monument , then passing the Villa Stuck and Hitler's old apartment.
The Prinzregententheater is at Prinzregentenplatz further to the east. In Schwabing and Maxvorstadt , many beautiful streets with continuous rows of Gründerzeit buildings can be found. Numerous tiny alleys and shady lanes connect the larger streets and little plazas of the area, conveying the legendary artist's quarter's flair and atmosphere convincingly like it was at the turn of the 20th century. One of Bogenhausen's most beautiful buildings is Villa Stuck , famed residence of painter Franz von Stuck.
Two large baroque palaces in Nymphenburg and Oberschleissheim are reminders of Bavaria's royal past. Schloss Fürstenried Fürstenried Palace , a baroque palace of similar structure to Nymphenburg but of much smaller size, was erected around the same time in the south west of Munich.
The second large baroque residence is Schloss Schleissheim Schleissheim Palace , located in the suburb of Oberschleissheim , a palace complex encompassing three separate residences: Most parts of the palace complex serve as museums and art galleries.
The Bavaria statue before the neo-classical Ruhmeshalle is a monumental, bronze sand-cast 19th-century statue at Theresienwiese.
The Grünwald castle is the only medieval castle in the Munich area which still exists. St Michael in Berg am Laim might be the most remarkable church in the suburbs. Most of the boroughs have parish churches which originate from the Middle Ages like the most famous church of pilgrimage in Munich St Mary in Ramersdorf. The oldest church within the city borders is Heilig Kreuz in Fröttmaning next to the Allianz-Arena, known for its Romanesque fresco. Especially in its suburbs, Munich features a wide and diverse array of modern architecture, although strict culturally sensitive height limitations for buildings have limited the construction of skyscrapers to avoid a loss of views to the distant Bavarian Alps.
Several other high-rise buildings are located near the city centre and on the Siemens campus in southern Munich. A landmark of modern Munich is also the architecture of the sport stadiums as described below. Munich is a densely-built city but still offers numerous public parks. The Englischer Garten , close to the city centre and covering an area of 3. It contains a naturist nudist area, numerous bicycle and jogging tracks as well as bridle-paths.
It is considered the "green lung" of Munich and one of the city's best-loved features. It was designed and laid out by Benjamin Thompson , Count of Rumford, for both pleasure and as a work area for the city's vagrants and homeless.
Nowadays it is entirely a park, its southern half being dominated by wide and extremely well-kept open areas, hills, monuments and beach-like stretches along the streams Eisbach and Schwabinger Bach , which get crowded in summer.
In contrast, its less-frequented northern part is much more quiet, idyllic and natural-seeming, at times resembling a natural preserve more than an urban public park: Multiple Biergartens can be found in both parts of the Englischer Garten, the most well known being located at the Chinese Pagoda.
Other large green spaces are the modern Olympiapark , Westpark , and the parks of Nymphenburg Palace with the Botanischer Garten München-Nymphenburg to the north , and Schleissheim Palace. The city's oldest park is the Hofgarten , near the Residenz, dating back to the 16th century. Best known for the largest beergarden in town is the former royal Hirschgarten , founded in for deer, which still live there.
The city's zoo is the Tierpark Hellabrunn near the Flaucher Island in the Isar in the south of the city. Another notable park is Ostpark located in the Ramersdorf-Perlach borough which also houses the Michaelibad , the largest waterpark in Munich. Other notable clubs include Munich , who were long time their rivals on a somewhat equal footing, but currently play in the 3rd Division 3.
Liga along with another former Bundesliga club SpVgg Unterhaching. The city's ice hockey club is EHC Munich. It was one of the host cities for the Football World Cup , which was not held in Munich's Olympic Stadium , but in a new football specific stadium , the Allianz Arena.
Munich bid to host the Winter Olympic Games , but lost to Pyeongchang. Public sporting facilities in Munich include ten indoor swimming pools  and eight outdoor swimming pools,  which are operated by the Munich City Utilities SWM communal company.
Further, swimming within Munich's city limits is also possible in several artificial lakes such as for example the Riemer See or the Langwieder lake district. Munich has a reputation as a surfing hotspot, offering the world's best known river surfing spot, the Eisbach wave, which is located at the southern edge of the Englischer Garten park and used by surfers day and night and throughout the year.
The Deutsches Museum or German Museum, located on an island in the River Isar, is the largest and one of the oldest science museums in the world. Three redundant exhibition buildings that are under a protection order were converted to house the Verkehrsmuseum , which houses the land transport collections of the Deutsches Museum. Several non-centralised museums many of those are public collections at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität show the expanded state collections of palaeontology , geology, mineralogy ,  zoology , botany and anthropology.
The city has several important art galleries , most of which can be found in the Kunstareal , including the Alte Pinakothek , the Neue Pinakothek , the Pinakothek der Moderne and the Museum Brandhorst. The Alte Pinakothek contains a treasure trove of the works of European masters between the 14th and 18th centuries.
The collection reflects the eclectic tastes of the Wittelsbachs over four centuries, and is sorted by schools over two floors. The gallery houses one of the world's most comprehensive Rubens collections. Another important museum in the Kunstareal is the Egyptian Museum. The gothic Morris dancers of Erasmus Grasser are exhibited in the Munich City Museum in the old gothic arsenal building in the inner city. Another area for the arts next to the Kunstareal is the Lehel quarter between the old town and the river Isar: The nearby Schackgalerie is an important gallery of German 19th-century paintings.
Munich is a major European cultural centre and has played host to many prominent composers including Orlando di Lasso , W. Some of classical music's best-known pieces have been created in and around Munich by composers born in the area, for example Richard Strauss's tone poem Also sprach Zarathustra or Carl Orff's Carmina Burana.
Many operas were staged there, including the premiere of Mozart's Idomeneo in The Gärtnerplatz Theatre is a ballet and musical state theatre while another opera house, the Prinzregententheater , has become the home of the Bavarian Theatre Academy.
The modern Gasteig centre houses the Munich Philharmonic Orchestra. The third orchestra in Munich with international importance is the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra.
Its primary concert venue is the Herkulessaal in the former city royal residence, the Munich Residenz. A stage for shows, big events and musicals is the Deutsche Theater. It is Germany's largest theatre for guest performances.
Munich's contributions to modern popular music are often overlooked in favour of its strong association with classical music, but they are numerous: In the s, the Musicland Studios developed into one of the most prominent recording studios in the world, with bands such as the Rolling Stones , Led Zeppelin , Deep Purple and Queen recording albums there.
Munich also played a significant role in the development of electronic music, with genre pioneer Giorgio Moroder , who invented synth disco and electronic dance music , and Donna Summer , one of disco music's most important performers, both living and working in the city.
In the late s, Electroclash was substantially co-invented if not even invented in Munich, when DJ Hell introduced and assembled international pioneers of this musical genre through his International DeeJay Gigolo Records label here. Music is so important in the Bavarian capital that the city hall gives permissions every day to 10 musicians for performing in the streets around Marienplatz.
This is how performers such as Olga Kholodnaya and Alex Jacobowitz are entertaining the locals and the tourists every day. Next to the Bavarian Staatsschauspiel in the Residenz Theatre Residenztheater , the Munich Kammerspiele in the Schauspielhaus is one of the most important German language theatres in the world.
The city is known as the second largest publishing centre in the world around publishing houses have offices in the city , and many national and international publications are published in Munich, such as Arts in Munich, LAXMag and Prinz. At the turn of the 20th century, Munich, and especially its suburb of Schwabing , was the preeminent cultural metropolis of Germany. Its importance as a centre for both literature and the fine arts was second to none in Europe, with numerous German and non-German artists moving there.
For example, Wassily Kandinsky chose Munich over Paris to study at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste München , and, along with many other painters and writers living in Schwabing at that time, had a profound influence on modern art. Prominent literary figures worked in Munich especially during the final decades of the Kingdom of Bavaria, the so-called Prinzregentenzeit literally "prince regent's time" under the reign of Luitpold, Prince Regent of Bavaria , a period often described as a cultural Golden Age for both Munich and Bavaria as a whole.
Its strikingly modern caricatures and biting satirical attacks on Wilhelmine German society were the result of countless of collaborative efforts by many of the best visual artists and writers from Munich and elsewhere.
The period immediately before World War I saw continued economic and cultural prominence for the city. Thomas Mann wrote in his novella Gladius Dei about this period: Karl Valentin was Germany's most important cabaret performer and comedian and is to this day well-remembered and beloved as a cultural icon of his hometown.
Between and , he wrote and performed in many absurdist sketches and short films that were highly influential, earning him the nickname of "Charlie Chaplin of Germany". Many of Valentin's works wouldn't be imaginable without his congenial female partner Liesl Karlstadt , who often played male characters to hilarious effect in their sketches. Kandinsky's first abstract painting was created in Schwabing. In , the Filmverlag der Autoren was founded, cementing the city's role in the movement's history.
Munich served as the location for many of Fassbinder's films, among them Ali: Fear Eats the Soul. The Hotel Deutsche Eiche near Gärtnerplatz was somewhat like a centre of operations for Fassbinder and his "clan" of actors.
New German Cinema is considered by far the most important artistic movement in German cinema history since the era of German Expressionism in the s. In , the Bavaria Film Studios were founded, which developed into one of Europe's largest film studios.
Munich remains one of the centres of the German film and entertainment industry. The Hofbräuhaus am Platzl , arguably the most famous beer hall worldwide, is located in the city centre. It also operates the second largest tent at the Oktoberfest , one of Munich's most famous attractions.
For two weeks, the Oktoberfest attracts millions of people visiting its beer tents "Bierzelte" and fairground attractions. The Oktoberfest was first held on 12 October in honour of the marriage of crown prince Ludwig to Princess Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen.
The festivities were closed with a horse race and in the following years the horse races were continued and later developed into what is now known as the Oktoberfest.
Despite its name, most of Oktoberfest occurs in September. It always finishes on the first Sunday in October unless the German national holiday on 3 October Tag der deutschen Einheit , i. The Munich cuisine contributes to the Bavarian cuisine. It is a Munich speciality. Traditionally eaten only before noon — a tradition dating to a time before refrigerators — these morsels are often served with sweet mustard and freshly baked pretzels.
Helles , a pale lager with a translucent gold colour is the most popular Munich beer today, although it's not old only introduced in and is the result of a change in beer tastes. Helles has largely replaced Munich's dark beer, Dunkles , which gets its colour from roasted malt. It was the typical beer in Munich in the 19th century, but it is now more of a speciality.
It is dark amber in colour and has a heavy malty taste. It is available and is sold particularly during the Lenten Starkbierzeit strong beer season , which begins on or before St.
Joseph's Day 19 March. The beer served at Oktoberfest is a special type of Märzen beer with a higher alcohol content than regular Helles. I was an independent consulting badass. The company has now removed a browser history data collection feature from its macOS products. Here's a between-the-lines reading of the developments.
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