Written in ink in an early form of Arabic script on parchment made from animal skin, the pages contain parts of the Suras, or chapters, 18 to 20, which may have been written by someone who actually knew the Prophet Muhammad - founder of the Islamic faith. Scroll down for video. Fragments of what is believed to be the world's oldest Koran. Several historians have said it could even predate the Prophet Muhammad. The discovery was said to be particularly significant as in the early years of Islam, the Koran was thought to have been memorised and passed down orally rather written.
But now several historians have said that the parchment might even predate Muhammad. Historian Tom Holland, told the Times: The pages were carbon dated by experts at the University of Oxford, which showed it could be the oldest Koran in the world. The ancient pages were found bound alongside those of a younger copy of the Koran from the seventh century AD. It is thought they had been put together because the Hijazi script on the parchment was similar.
They had been collected during the s by a Chaldean priest called Alphonse Mingana who put together a huge collection of documents from the Middle East.
His expeditions to the Middle East were sponsored by Edward Cadbury, from the chocolate dynasty. A special library was built at Selly Oak Colleges in Birmingham, a group of colleges set up by a group of Quakers led by George Cadbury.
When the colleges were merged with the University of Birmingham in the s, the collection was brought under the care of the Cadbury Research Library at the university. The fragments of the Koran then lay undiscovered until they were sent for radio carbon dating at the University of Oxford.
However, these claims are strongly disputed by Muslim scholars, with Mustafa Shah from the School of Oriental and African Studies in London also telling the paper: During this time the Koran was memorised and recited orally but Caliph Abu Bakr, the first leader of the Muslim community after Muhammad's death, ordered the Koranic material to be collected into a book.
The final authoritative written form was not completed until AD under the third leader Caliph Uthman. Professor Nadir Dinshaw, who studies interreligious relations at the University of Birmingham, described the discovery as 'startling'.
When it was found last month he said: Instead, the revelations were preserved in 'the memories of men'. Muslims believe that the Koran they read today is the same text that was standardised under Uthman and regard it as the exact record of the revelations that were delivered to Muhammad.
Although Muslims believe that Islam is a faith that has always existed and was gradually revealed to humanity by a number of prophets, Muhammad is the one said to have made the complete revelation in the seventh century. The traditional story of the Koran tells how one night in Muhammad, a deeply spiritual and religious man, was meditating in a cave on Mount Hira when he was visited by the angel Jibreel who ordered him to recite.
Once Jibreel mentioned the name of Allah, Muhammad began to recite words which he came to believe were the words of God. These revelations continued for 23 years and are collectively known as the Koran. When he began to recite the Koran, Muhammad and his small group of followers suffered persecution from unbelievers. In God gave them the command to migrate from Mecca to the city of Medina, some miles to the north, which marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar.
After several years, Muhammad and his followers returned to Mecca and forgave their enemies. Shortly before Muhammad died, at the age of 63, the majority of the Arabian Peninsula had become Muslim. Within a century of his death Islam had also spread to Spain in the west and as far east as China. Islam is now the second largest religion in the world with over one billion followers. The census recorded 2. The views expressed in the contents above are those of our users and do not necessarily reflect the views of MailOnline.
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Share this article Share. Koran discovery could rewrite Islamic history The Times. Share or comment on this article: However, Martha realises that the android is not able to replicate the small details in her loved one's behaviour and starts distancing herself from it. Finally, Martha takes the artificial Ash to a cliff and orders it to jump off. As it begins to follow the order, Martha expresses her frustration that Ash would not have simply obeyed.
As a response, the android starts begging for its life. Unable to get rid of it, she ends up keeping the android in the attic, where a few years later her little daughter visits it every weekend.
A woman wakes up in a house with amnesia. She notices people on the street recording her on their phones, but when she speaks to them they ignore her. When a masked man opens fire at her with a shotgun, she flees and meets Jem, another woman running away from the "hunters". Jem explains that the people recording her have been affected by a signal that appeared on their screens, while the hunters are unaffected people acting sadistically. When they reach the facilities, they are attacked by two more hunters.
The woman manages to wrestle a shotgun away, but when she pulls the trigger it only sprays confetti, revealing that everything was staged. The woman is told that her name is Victoria Skillane and she has been found guilty for her part in the brutal killing of a young girl. She has been sentenced to undergo this psychological torture daily in the "White Bear Justice Park", where visitors are allowed to record her daily suffering.
Victoria is returned to the house where she awoke and has her memory of the day's events wiped clean, in an extremely painful procedure.
Jamie Salter is a comedian controlling a vulgar computer-animated bear named Waldo on a late-night show. The character becomes popular with the British public and a pilot for a series is commissioned.
Jamie reluctantly agrees to have Waldo enter an upcoming by-election to promote the pilot, having no interest in politics himself. Waldo is projected onto a screen on the side of a van and targets the Conservative candidate Liam Monroe by following him around during his campaign. Jamie sleeps with the Labour candidate Gwendolyn Harris, with whom he starts falling in love. When Gwendolyn follows her campaign manager's advice and distances herself from Jamie, he exposes her publicly as a career politician.
Waldo gains more public support, attracting American interest for global branding, but Jamie rejects the idea. On the final day of the campaign trail, Jamie begs the public not to vote for Waldo. Monroe wins the election, with Waldo coming second and Gwendolyn third. In the future, Jamie wakes up homeless in a dystopian police state, with Waldo's face appearing on every screen on the streets.
On Christmas Day, Matt and Joe start talking about their past for the first time, after five years that they have been stationed together in a remote cabin. Matt used to help single men seduce women. His clients had optical implants that allowed him to see through their eyes and give them advice in real-time using the "Eye-Link" technology.
His main profession, however, was subjugating artificial copies of clients' consciousness, stored into bean-sized chips called "cookies", into docile personal assistants in charge of running smart houses. Joe reveals that after a domestic squabble, his pregnant girlfriend Beth "blocked" him, using a technology that turned them into incomprehensible pixelated blurs to each other.
The block lasted for years, preventing him from talking to Beth or the child, until Beth died in an accident. Joe found the child in Beth's father's cabin, but the man told him that the little girl was not his daughter. Angered, Joe bashed his head with an object and left.
After Joe tells Matt that the girl also died in the blizzard, trying to get help for her grandfather, it is revealed that everything is taking place inside Joe's cookie, where Matt was trying to extract Joe's confession, in exchange for his own release from prison.
Due to his Eye-Link-related voyeurism, Matt is registered as a sex offender, resulting in him being universally blocked following his release. Joe's artificial consciousness remains trapped in the cabin, having its time perception changed to 1, years a minute. Using eye implants and mobile devices, people rate their online and in-person interactions on a five-star scale.
This system cultivates insincere relationships, as a person's rating significantly affects their socioeconomic status. Lacie is a young woman currently rated at 4. Lacie tries to gain favour from highly-rated people, as they have larger impacts on scores, and sees a great chance to achieve her goal, when school friend Naomi asks her to be maid-of-honour at her upcoming wedding, with many highly-rated guests.
After a series of mishaps on her way to the wedding that send her ratings plummeting, Naomi calls Lacie and tells her not to come. Enraged, Lacie manages to get to the celebratory dinner; she grabs the microphone and starts giving the speech she had written.
The guests rate her negatively, causing her rating to drop to zero. She becomes dangerously upset and security removes her from the area. She is placed in a cell and has the technology supporting the rating system removed from her eyes. Feeling liberated, she gets into an argument with a man, without worrying about being rated. Cooper leaves his home in America to travel the world, but ends up stranded in England after a banking error.
He avoids calling his mother for help, as he has been unable to connect with her following his father's death due to early-onset Alzheimer's. While staying at the house of a girl he had slept with the previous night, Cooper offers to participate in a playtest of an augmented reality video game.
A gadget with the ability to layer lifelike images and sounds into his perception is implanted at the back of his neck, though a phone call from his mother causes an interference during the initialisation process.
After the gadget probes his brain for information on things that scare him, the test begins with Cooper being left alone in a spooky mansion. There, Cooper endures some jumpscares at first, but when he later experiences severe mental and physical pain the test is terminated. Cooper returns home to his mother, who does not recognise him, and he realises that—like his father—she too has been afflicted with Alzheimer's. At this point, it is revealed that all events subsequent to the signal interference were taking place in Cooper's head.
The interference had caused his brain synapses to light up all at once, resulting in his death shortly afterwards. Kind nineteen-year-old Kenny downloads an anti- malware program to fix his infected laptop. Unbeknownst to him, the program activates his laptop camera, which records him masturbating to internet porn.
Hackers threaten to e-mail a video of his act to his entire contacts list, unless he follows their instructions. Another victim of the hackers gives Kenny a box with a cake inside, which he then has to deliver to Hector, a man being blackmailed over infidelity.
Kenny and Hector get into an assigned car and drive to a bank, which they must rob using a gun hidden inside the cake. Kenny robs the bank and they drive to the drop-off point in a nearby wood.
Kenny alone carries the money, as Hector leaves to destroy the car. In the wood, Kenny meets another man, who is being blackmailed for watching child pornography.
The man explains to Kenny that they are to fight to the death and attacks him. Kenny manages to kill the man, but the hackers leak all the blackmail material of their victims anyway. Kenny receives a call from his crying mother, where it is revealed that he too was masturbating to child pornography.
The police arrive at his location and apprehend him. In , shy Yorkie visits a bar in a beach resort town named San Junipero, where she meets the outgoing Kelly.
The two young women are attracted to each other and they sleep together. After that, Yorkie is not able to find Kelly again, until a man suggests looking for her in a different time. Yorkie visits , , and finally manages to find Kelly in Kelly explains that she is dying and that she was not looking for a relationship. San Junipero is revealed to be a virtual world, set across different time periods, where dead people can upload their artificial consciousness, while visitors, like Yorkie and Kelly, can test the trial period of the system once a week.
In real life, old Kelly visits bedridden Yorkie in a hospital, and discovers that she was paralyzed 40 years earlier, after running her car off the road in despair, when her parents rejected her for coming out.
Kelly marries Yorkie and authorises her wish to be euthanised and uploaded to San Junipero. As her health worsens, Kelly elects to do the same, overcoming her thoughts of her dead husband and daughter who were not uploaded to the system.
Kelly and Yorkie reunite in San Junipero forever. Soldiers are exterminating mutated humans called "roaches" in a foreign country, using a neural implant called MASS, which enhances their senses and provides instant data via augmented reality. When soldier Stripe encounters several aggressive roaches, one of them uses a mysterious device that disrupts his MASS interface.
The next day, Stripe starts seeing roaches as humans, and tries to save a frightened woman from his fellow female soldier, Hunter. The woman tells him that MASS disguises the fact that roaches are regular humans, hated by everyday civilians due to propaganda and prejudice. Hunter knocks Stripe unconscious and brings him back to the military base, where he is incarcerated. An officer named Arquette reveals to him that the true purpose of the MASS implants is to dehumanise the enemy, allowing soldiers to kill them more efficiently, as part of a eugenics program.
Arquette threatens to imprison Stripe, endlessly looping raw footage of him killing ordinary humans during his service, unless he consents to have his MASS system reset. In the future, Stripe returns home and sees a beautiful woman waiting for him, but this is revealed to be a figment created by the MASS implant.
Coulson finds that the two victims had been targeted with the " DeathTo" hashtag on social media, as part of the "Game of Consequences", where the person that leads the hashtag tables is killed every day. After a third person is killed, the hashtag starts rapidly growing in use. Police raid his location, yielding a disk drive that contains a list of every person who has used the hashtag.
Parke concludes that these people are Scholes' real targets. Agent Li deactivates the system to bounce the hacker out, but when it comes back online, swarms of ADIs target a total of , people, resulting in a tremendous massacre. Sometime later, Parke is summoned to a hearing, where she talks about her involvement in the case. Coulson, who is presumed to have committed suicide, finds Scholes abroad and texts Parke "Got him".
Robert Daly, a reclusive but gifted programmer and co-founder of a popular massive multiplayer online game, is embittered by the lack of recognition for his work.
He has created a mock Star Trek -like simulation on a private server, using DNA from his co-workers to create sentient digital clones of them, serving under himself their abusive captain of the starship USS Callister.
When the digital clone of new hire Nanette Cole is brought into his game, Cole's clone encourages the other copies to revolt against Daly. After obtaining a in-simulation device that lets them communicate outside the private server, Cole's clone blackmails the real Cole to distract Daly long enough for the digital clones to take over Callister and escape off the private server, while Daly, trapped within the simulation at the onset of a game patch, ends up motionless in the real world.
Marie briefly loses track of her three-year old daughter Sara, and decides to have her implanted with the Arkangel system, allowing Marie to use a tablet to track her, monitor her health and emotional state, and censor sights she doesn't want Sara to see, such as blood.