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That fact is undisputed, but more uncertain is the relationship between Ramsey and the monastic foundation at Bedericsworth. Hart also suggests that any such control was extinguished in at the Battle of Assendun, where Ramsey monks were present on the 'losing' side, and King Cnut then personally took St Edmunds under his wing.

Ramsey was located within Mercia, an area much more amenable to central control than the independent East Anglia, and this period of suggested "control" by Ramsey must still be open to some doubt. Although Aethelwine was Ealdorman of East Anglia, his home was at Upwood, close by Ramsey, and it seems that he also did not get very much involved with issues inside East Anglia.

King Edgar and Regularis Concordia. A new set of regulations for monastic life in England, based on Benedictine practice was drawn up by Ethelwold, later St Ethelwold , the Bishop of Winchester, with the close approval of Dunstan, later St Dunstan , the Archbishop of Canterbury.

It was known as the Regularis Concordia. The Regularis Concordia, organised by King Edgar as an agreement between the king and the monks and nuns of England, required that they simplify their lives, and follow the sixth-century Monastic Rule of St. In return, the monks were under the special care of the king, and nuns under the care of the queen. In addition, the monks and nuns of England, as those who lived the most saintly monastic lives, were required to offer prayers for the King and Queen.

These new rules led to such a well trained body of monks that monastic life remained strong throughout the Danish invasion and up to the Normans. King Edgar actively supported and enforced all these church reforms, removing secular monks and replacing them by celibate monks with allegiance to St Benedict's rule, rather than to local landlords. These houses had been ruined by the Danish invasions, and at Ramsey, a great new religious house was set up.

Although nowadays we would regard these Fenland towns as part of East Anglia, in they were part of Mercia. However, St Etheldreda of Ely had been a Wuffing Princess, and the area around Rendlesham had been a Wuffing royal estate since the days of King Raedwald, who died in Whatever the reason, King Edgar was able to issue a charter to give Ely Abbey the rights to the Wicklaw or Wicklow, an area of five and a half hundreds in East Suffolk around Rendlesham and Woodbridge.

Ely soon let them to a tenant in order to get land closer to home. Despite the fact that the King was pushing Benedictines into minsters across the country, he did not seem to have the lands or the authority to push them into East Anglia, and in particular, into Beodericsworth, or Bury St Edmunds, as we now know it. The clergy who were in control of St Edmund's shrine may have had wives, and did not follow the new fangled Benedictine strict codes of subjugation to the rule of a monastic order.

They were only a small community and would not have been able to resist the King's will unless East Anglia was indeed still a self governing unit, only partially at one with the rest of the country. Hundreds were first mentioned in the Laws of Edgar in , and by the time of Ethelred the term referred to an area of one hundred hides for the purpose of taxation.

It has been suggested that originally a hundred could support men, and that some, if not all, of the hundreds dated back to pre-Viking times. Curiously, most authors say that the Danes have left only a handful of Parish names in Suffolk and five have been identified as Risby, Lound, Ashby, Barnby and Eyke.

When he died in , he was buried there. With his new foundations being put in place in Mercia, it seems that King Edgar wanted to support them by allocating some of the remains or relics of St Botolph to the new minsters at Ely and Thorney. He gave permission for the saint's remains to be moved. For some reason the removal got as far as Burgh, near Grundisburgh, and there they lay for another 50 years until the time of King Canute.

Dunstan, the Archbishop of Canterbury, seems to have delayed Edgar's coronation for 13 years, until the king was 30, the age for ordination of priests. However, it is likely that he was crowned in , when he came to the throne, but that the ceremony was to be a new, more religious occasion. The kingship ceremony was made intensely religious at this time, and the King became Christs' appointed, a religious power as well as a secular one.

King Edgar the Peacable had sons by two different wives. The oldest son by his first wife was called Edward. His son by his second wife was called Aethelred. In King Edgar died to be succeeded by his young son Edward, who would eventually become known as Edward the Martyr. King Edgar's will had left 7 hides of land at Chelsworth to Aethelflaed of Damerham. Aethelflaed herself made a will between and , but probably after This will survives as Sawyer Reference S Many of her lands were left to her sister for life, and then to a religious institution after her sister's death.

These lands included the following clauses which benefitted the monastery at Bury St Edmunds: The young King Edward was murdered, probably as a result of the feud between the factions supporting the families of each of the wives. Aethelred was placed on the throne, and memories of the bad circumstances around his accession would dog his career. He himself was only a boy of 9 or 10 when he was made King. The country was incensed by the intrigue and many were ready to fight his rule.

Aethelred II would rule from to , a period afflicted by constant Danish attacks on the country. After his reign he became known as Aethelred the Unready, but the Old English word "unraed" is believed to have been best translated as 'ill-advised'. Many types of coinage were issued over the period of his long rule, but moneyers at Thetford issued examples of all these types, as did Ipswich and Norwich. Fewer types were issued at Cambridge.

Bury St Edmunds was too unimportant to be ranked as a minting borough at this time. Bury's first coins would not appear until Meanwhile King Harold Bluetooth was uniting Norway and Denmark and imposing Christianity by force, building up a strong autocratic state.

Viking Axes from London. The Vikings raided the coasts and sacked London. It is possible that these raiders were pagans who were driven out of their homes by Harold Bluetooth and his violent imposition of Christianity.

The period from to has been called the Medieval Warm period, and in Erik the Red was forced into exile from Norway. Because the climate was improving, he was able to explore northwards, and to establish a settlement in Greenland which lasted until about Although there is no mention of attacks on East Anglia, Dr Lucy Marten has suggested that these almost certainly did take place each year after The east coast was readily accessible to the Danes, and news from East Anglia was not usually reported in the Chronicles written far away in Wessex.

Ealdorman Aethelwine of East Anglia had been charge in those lands since By he had risen in status to become the chief Ealdorman in the land. His name would now be at the head of those witness lists that attested to all major wills and Charters. Thus, although he was Ealdorman of East Anglia, he lived outside those lands, and his home was in a part of Mercia.

Although he held estates in Wangford Hundred, and had leased the Wicklaw from Ely Abbey, he did not seem to have played a major role in East Anglian affairs. However, he would have received reports from the hendredal representatives of the constant pirate raids on East Anglia, and he would have been involved in deciding upon a response. In a hoard of silver coins was hidden at Gippeswic. This hoard was disovered in the Buttermarket, Ipswich, in It could well be that it was deposited in the face of another unrecorded Danish attack on Ipswich and the east coast.

The significance of this event has caused some discussion amongst historians. Was this evidence that Ramsey had some form of oversight and control of the foundation of St Edmund's community at Beodricsworth, as has been suggested?

If not, then why was St Edmund's story not written up at Bury? The answer to this may simply be that Abbo was already well known as a very learned man in a wide variety of subjects, who was eager to become an hagiographer, or writer of saints' lives. He was the best man for the job, and the job was probably commissioned by a major patron of the abbey, such as Ealdorman Aethelwine, the most important Ealdorman in the whole country, who also lived nearby.

The country was being raided by Danes on an annual basis, and it would help to improve morale if the story of St Edmund's own resistance to the Danes could be more widely known. Abbo's book was based on a story told by Archbishop Dunstan as an example to his young monks.

Dunstan said that he got the tale from the eye witness report of an old soldier who claimed to have fought for St Edmund. Some translations have described this witness as armour bearer of the King himself, but another reading of "sword bearer", is simply that he carried arms into battle.

Abbo's "Life" was written years after the events which it described. Nevertheless, this was to become the basis of all future lives of the saint, which were reworked many times in years to come.

The earliest texts of Abbo do not appear to mention any locations for the battle or for where the saint was laid to rest in a fine church.

What he does imply is that the fine church, endowed with many gifts, was erected at the marker at which the saint was originally buried. Like Abbo, we know that the saints remains were by this time at Beodricsworth, now called Bury St Edmunds, In other texts it is said that Abbo described Beodricsworth as as having been a villa regia, or kinges tun. Some time within the years of and , a monk, called Aelfric, wrote an Old English translation of the latin text of Abbo's 'Life of St Edmund'.

Aelfric was working at Cerne Abbas, and as texts were passed around the network of monastic institutions, they were copied and re-copied. In his preface, he wrote that: The monk Abbo returned home to his monastery within two years, and was soon elevated to abbot of that same monastery. According to a legend of the Abbey of St Edmund, recorded many years later in monastic records, around this time Ailwin was appointed guardian of the shrine.

The secular priests who had been in charge of St Edmund's shrine for most of the century had been overtaken by new ideas of what was suitable devout religious practice. The rule of St Benedict was being adopted in the new monasteries, and it seems that they were widely held to be more devout and more fitting to guard a shrine. Perhaps the local people were not ready for such a drastic change at this time, and so Bishop Algare put Ailwin, described as a monk, in charge at Bury.

It would seem that he merely ruled over the existing college. The illustration is from the Psychomachia of Prudentius, a popular work copied in many religious institutions from the 10th to the 12th centuries.

This page shows the desire for luxury, one of the 'Spritual Combats' that the devout monk had to undergo. This particular document was in the library at Bury Abbey in the 14th century. It is possible that it had been owned, and possibly even produced, by the secular college of monks in Bury around this time. The Bury College of monks may actually have been doing a good job already, before the Benedictines came here.

Dr Antonia Gransden has suggested that it is possible that St Oswald, the founder of Ramsey Abbey may have had a hand in introducing Benedictines to Bury. Oswald died in , so if this was the case it was well before the traditional date of about when Canute is said to have introduced them.

Maybe Ailwin was a follower of St Benedict, but perhaps because East Anglia still had its own traditions, the King could not introduce Benedictine monks at this time. By a version of the Anglo Saxon Chronicle has survived from London. This recorded more news from East Anglia and it would seem that suddenly a second wave of Danish attacks assailed East Anglia.

In reality it seems likely that raids had been going on here since , but had not been recorded in the Wessex Chronicles. In a large, well organised army led by Olaf, later King of Norway, defeated the English at Sandwich, then attacked and ravaged Ipswich.

Olaf Tryggvason of Norway seems to have masterminded this attack along with Svein Forkbeard of Denmark. This led finally to the famous Battle of Maldon, commemorated in an epic poem.

At this time Ealdorman Aethelwine was the chief man in East Anglia, but he was probably lying ill at home in Ramsey, as he would die in of an affliction of the feet. The poem records how a Danish representative stood on Northey Island and suggested that a battle could be avoided if tribute money were paid. Byrhtnoth replied from the mainland side of the causeway that the tribute would be paid in spears, deadly points and tried swords.

The battle could not begin until the tide had ebbed sufficiently to allow the armies to meet. The poem records that the grey haired Byrhtnoth was hit by a spear, but continued to fight. Eventually his sword arm was disabled and he was hacked to death along with two loyal bodyguards. By this time, Sturmer was the main centre in the Haverhill area, sending a famous battalion under their Saxon chief Leofsunu to fight at the Battle of Maldon which took place on August 11th During the battle when the English leader, Byrhtnoth, was killed, Godric, Godwine and others fled.

The poem then records the last stand of the remaining army, quoting words of defiance from several loyal leaders. One such was Leofsunu of Sturmer in this dramatic translation by Bill Griffiths: I will not step back a foot's space. Rather I'll go further ahead Avenge in battle my benefactor No one round Sturmer, steady in judgement will ever need accuse me, now my kind lord's fallen of making for home, deserting my master running from war.

Better a weapon take me Point or Blade. Then, in a passion He fought fiercely. To show that all classes of men were still willing to fight on, the poem gives more words of defiance to Dunnere, "a simple yeoman".

Despite all this bravado, the English are defeated by the northmen. Ealdorman Byrhtnoth's headless body was recovered to be finally buried at Ely, with a ball of wax to replace his head. Burying the body at the great monastery at Ely emphasises his importance as a symbol of resistance. His widow was called Aellflaed, daughter of Aelfgar. She commissioned a hanging embroidered with the deeds of her husband.

As her will Sawyer reference S later recorded that there was a "holy foundation at Stoke by Nayland , where my ancestors lie buried", it is quite likely that this tapestry was displayed there. No trace now remains of any monastery at Stoke by Nayland. After these battles, the leadership of Essex and East Anglia was largely wiped out. It was left to the Archbishop of Canterbury, Sigeric, to lead an appeal to raise money to pay off the Danes.

This was probably restricted to the areas mentioned, as so far there was no nationally organised way of mounting any response to the attacks. This was the first tribute payment that had been made for a generation. Later these tributes came to be called Danegeld. This money was raised by taxation, and only served to produce further raids and demands on other areas of England.

Danegeld would seriously weaken the economy for years to come. At Ramsey, Ealdorman Aethelwine died. It is unclear who succeeded him as the major power in East Anglia. But by the organisation of East Anglian defence was in the hands of a man called Ulfcytel, who would come to be acknowledged as a great military leader. The English ships were collected at London in order to head off further danish attacks. Aelfric, for unknown reasons, betrayed the King's plan to the Danes.

The Danes invaded again, not having total success despite betrayal of the King's intentions by Aelfric. However, the East Anglian ships were destroyed. The Danes suffered heavy looses and withdrew up the coast. They ravaged Essex, then obtained horses and attacked in Kent, Sussex and Hampshire. During the truce, King Aethelred persuaded King Olaf of Norway to be baptised and his confirmation was sponsored by Aethelred himself.

Olaf agreed to take his money and return to Norway, never to attack England again. This was a major coup for Aethelred, as it left Swein isolated. The Abbot of Ely monastery at this time was called Byrhtnoth, the same name as the Ealdorman of Essex who died at Maldon in , but obviously a different person. He had ruled Ely since about , and was supposedly murdered by dowager Queen Aelfthryth between and When the abbot asked for the customary sureties for the purchase, "everyone said in reply, that Cambridge, Norwich, Thetford and Ipswich were possessed of such great freedom and dignity that if anyone bought land there, he did not require sureties.

It had reached this stage by massive growth over the previous hundred years. By now its defensive ditch had been enlarged to up to 42 feet wide and 12 feet deep. From to viking raids occurred every year. By this time Norwich was catching up with Thetford as the main city of the Norfolk area. It had better access to the sea than Thetford and could handle more trade more cheaply because of this advantage. However, an analysis of the coinage produced in those towns still gives Thetford the advantage.

Analysed by the number of moneyers working in Aethelred's reign, at each place, Thetford is 6th in the country, while Norwich is tenth, and Ipswich is 18th. In the years from to , Aelfflaed, the sister of Aethelflaed of Damerham, drew up her will. She was probably the younger of the two sisters, and both women were daughters of Aelfgar, Ealderman of Essex around to Aelfflaed herself had been married to Byrhtnoth, also Ealdorman of Essex, from until his death at the Battle of Maldon in The will of the Lady Aelfflaed still exists, and is catalogued as Sawyer S In this will, estates at Cockfield and Chelsworth are left to the monastery of St Edmund.

Land at Nedging is left to her kinswoman Crawe in her lifetime, after which it will pass to St Edmund also. The religious foundation of St Edmund at Bedericsworth had, by now, already built up a substantial endowment of valuable estates. Those nearest to the shrine are illustrated on this map by Cyril Hart, taken from his book, "The Danelaw". Aelfflaed also left Waldingfield to Crawe for life, after which it would pass to the church of St Gregory in Sudbury.

King Aethelred was faced with a constant series of attacks from the Northmen. He did not have an effective national army to fight back. He relied upon the local forces to mobilise to defend their local areas. In any case the Danes often moved very quickly, and there was little time to organise large scale defences. If he anticipated their movements he found that local forces would not trouble to defend areas outside their own sphere of influence.

In he married Queen Emma of Normandy to try to strengthen his foreign alliances. He built churches and promoted national lawcodes to promote good order and Godly behaviour. What else could he contemplate doing? By a man called Ulfcytel was appearing in the witness lists of royal writs. These were drawn up in strict order of precedence, and Ulfcytel was listed among the Ministers. Although the later deeds of Ulfcytel make him famous, there appears to be no record of him before this date.

Neither is there any indication of his ancestry or his kinships. The name is taken to be of Danish origin, and perhaps he was descended from the Danes under Guthrum who had settled around the Broads area after the Danelaw Treaty of Or perhaps he was a native Dane, already well known in Scandinavia for prowess with arms, who was employed by King AEthelred as a mercenary leader to defend the English from the marauders.

In a desperate attempt to regain control of his destiny, King Ethelred ordered a general massacre of all the Danes in England on St Brice's day, November 13th. This was on a Saturday, the traditional bathing and rest day of the Danes. One victim turned out to be the sister of King Swein of Denmark. Was Ulfcytel involved in this massacre? It is unclear exactly which "Danes" were to be attacked. Perhaps there were some guests at court, who were the "Danes" referred to. Did the king mean only newly arrived Danes or those old families who had been here since Guthrum's day?

Were the king's orders carried out in the Anglo-Danish lands of East Anglia? Presumably the new Danes were easily told from the old established Danish families who had been in East Anglia for over a century. In any case retribution would fall on East Anglia in Exeter was destroyed by the Danish host. Aelfric led the levies from Wiltshire and Hampshire, but before the fight the Chronicles say that he pretended to be ill, and avoided the battle.

The army was leaderless and Swein had an easy victory. The defeatism of Aelfric was to be contrasted with the fighting spirit of Ulfcytel in East Anglia by the Chroniclers. However, both leaders lost their battles.

Making their way up the rivers, they attacked Norwich, sacked the city and then burned it down. Ulfcytel quickly took counsel with the East Anglian Witan to decide whether to buy peace with the Danes, or to fight. They decided that they had no time to gather the east anglian force or fyrde together, and agreed to pay off the Danes.

As usual, they agreed a three week truce in order to give them time to raise the cash. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle tells us that under cover of the truce, the Danes marched inland to Thetford. Hearing of this, Ulfcytel sent a force to attack the Danish fleet, and destroy it at anchor. Something went wrong and the attackers failed in their duty. Meanwhile, three weeks into the truce the force of King Sweyn Forkbeard reached Thetford and spent the night pillaging the town before they burnt it down.

Ulfcytel Snilling was apparently the local Anglo-Danish Ealderman, and by the next day he had raised a force to confront the invaders on Wretham Heath, north of Thetford, at Ringmere. However, he still did not have time to get the fyrde up to full strength. The Chronicle fails to name this fight, but later Danish sources give us the name of the battle site as Ringmere Heath. Ringmere was a conspicuous location in the heathland of the area, having a round mere which fluctuated with the seasons.

It was also the spot where five modern parish boundaries converge, and these were probably also boundaries of vills or settlements at the time. Such places were well known, and made good rallying points for the assembly of fighting men.

Nevertheless, the Chronicles tell us that the Danes had never met such stiff resistance before, and that if Ulfcytel had got more men, then he would have won.

Ulfketel or Ulfcytel took heavy casualties next day and lost the most senior of his East Anglian troops. However, although the invaders won the day, they too took heavy losses, and they ran for their ships and left the country. Ulfcytel had anticipated this and had sent orders to destroy these ships, but this never took place. The writers of the Chronicles seem to have had a high regard for Ulfcytel, going out of their way to praise him.

He was known as "snilling" in the skaldic verses sung about him in Scandinavia, translating as "the bold" or "the valiant". Charters of the time seem to refer to him as "Minister", rather than as Ealdorman.

Some historians have interpreted this to emphasise that he was Ealdorman with some special status. But although he seems to carry out the duties of Ealdorman, he does not seem to have been given that title. He was killed in , still fighting Danish incursions. In the Danes withdrew from England, probably because there was a famine in the land, and it was not worth staying.

To give thanks, perhaps, for the Danish withdrawal, it might be seen as appropriate to give thanks to God via a gift to His church on earth. Ulfcytel had rights over sufficient property that he could grant some of it to the Abbey of St Edmund. This could also indicate that he was a Christian. Cyril Hart dates this Grant to c It may be translated as follows: If anyone alters this, God Almighty shall avert his countenance from him on the Day of Judgment, unless he has made amends for it here as quickly as possible.

These gifts were far from trivial. Rougham was probably one of the largest estates in Suffolk at the time. The Domesday Book would record it as having 5 carucates, 6 slaves, 93 freemen, and 27 men in Rushbrooke owed service there. In King Aethelred changed his advisers, trying to get new ideas to defend the country.

It is possible that Ulfcytel of East Anglia was promoted to the Court at this time. In he had shown his determination to fight off the Danes. As part of his strategy to placate God, who some thought had sent the Danes as a punishment, King Aethelred issued a new Law Code. This was drawn up by Archbishop Wulfstan of York. Throughout his career, Wulfstan tried to strengthen the position of the church. Part of this effort involved making explicit the rights of the church and the responsibilities of the English people to the church in the law codes.

An element of preaching was also present in the law codes associated with Wulfstan. Problems within the church and the country at large can be detected from the content of these codes. Pagan practices were rejected by law which shows that some people had reverted to paganism after the Danish raids of the late tenth and early eleventh century.

Clerical marriage remained a problem that was also addressed in the laws. At the same time as passing his new law code, King Aethelred made the bold and innovative attempt to build a new fleet of ships from a national tax levy. He issued a levy on every Hide to raise the finance needed.

From onwards, for administrative purposes most of Haverhill was in the Risbridge Hundred of Suffolk, but one third of it in what is now the Hamlet Road area, was in the Hinckford Hundred of Essex. This split continued for almost nine hundred years, until the end of the nineteenth century, when the whole of Haverhill was moved into Suffolk in King Aethelred was unlike previous kings in that he did not marry off his daughters to foreign princes, or send them into a nunnery.

He married them off instead to his Ealdormen in the areas outside Wessex that had been in the Danelaw, and may have held Danish sympathies. Thus in about it is thought that his daughter Wulfhild was married to Ulfcytel of East Anglia. Ulfcytel was, in effect, Ealdorman of East Anglia, but written sources refer to him as Minister, a somewhat lesser status. It may be that his title of Minister may give a clue as to his origin.

Perhaps he was not seen as quite English enough to be given the title of Ealdorman, but he was undoubtedly close to the King, and had a formidable fighting reputation.

By Aethelred had built most of his new fleet of ships, and they were assembled at Sandwich, ready to attack any Danish ships that came near the coast. The fleet was said to be larger than anything seen before. However, there was discord between the commanders, and Wulfnoth of Sussex broke away with 20 ships and raided up and down the south coast.

Another 80 ships were taken under Beorhtric's leadership to try to surround Wulfnoth. While at sea these were wrecked by a great storm. Wulfnoth apparently finished off the survivors. Any remaining ships retreated to London, and the great plan fizzled out into failure. On the 1st August, King Swein attacked England again. They wintered on the Thames and "lived off Essex and the neighbouring Shires. The English could not seem to make any effective defence.

Men like Archbishop Wulfstan urged the king to see these disasters as a punishment from God for not being holy enough. From 26th to 28th September, the King called for three days of prayer and fasting. Every hide was instructed to pay one penny to the church. In the King also issued a new coin, known as the Agnus Dei issue. Aethelred's coinage had begun with a portrait of him in a toga.

As the Danes came, his portrait was changed to show him wearing a military helmet. In he ordered his portrait to be removed altogether and replaced by a lamb, symbolising the lamb of god, and a dove to invoke the holy spirit on the reverse. This coin was only issued in By the following year Swein and the Danish host were moving on East Anglia again. The force then moved towards Thetford. They marched to meet the Anglo-Saxon forces, led by the man who was effectively Ealdorman of East Anglia, Ulfcytel, at a place called Hringamere, or Ringmere , on a date between 10th and 18th May, The battle was described as a 'bed of death', and despite help from Cambridgeshire, whose men alone stood firm, the East Anglians were defeated and fled.

This location may well have been at Rymer Point, near Honington, about four miles south of Thetford. Rymer Point, near Honington, is illustrated here by an aerial photograph which shows only a relic of the mere that gave the place its name.

This location is also extremely unusual in that nine parishes converge on the old mere, presumably to give watering, or fishing, rights to every parish in an area otherwise devoid of standing water. This would have been a well known place at which to call a rallying point for the fyrd. Another possible location has been cited at Ringmere, four miles north-east of Thetford, but it seems more likely that an army that was intending to defend Thetford, would meet an attack from the Ipswich direction to the south of Thetford.

This argument also supports an idea put forward by Alan Crosby, that part of Barnham Common was until recent times called Ringmere, and so this must also be considered a strong contender. After the battle the Vikings got horses, and ravaged at will for three months, burning Thetford, and penetrating the Fens to burn Cambridge. In Essex, the village of Balsham was destroyed by the raiders. The village sign still commemorates the only survivor who hid in the church. Fighting also occurred at Nacton and Hadstock.

As the Peterborough Chronicle says: They even travelled into the wild fens, and they killed men and cattle So while the Danes were moving on Thetford, the remains of St Edmund were taken to London for safekeeping out of harm's way by a clerk of the community at Bedericsworth called Egelwin or Ailwin. London had already demonstrated that its stone walls could resist Danish attackers.

In London the body was lodged at the church of St Gregory the Great. Ther are some accounts reported by Yates in his book on Bury Abbey, that Turchill, one of the Danish leaders under Sweign, having harassed and devastated the whole of East Anglia, burnt and plundered Bury. This does not seem to be an unreasonable supposition, given that the Danes spent three months raiding and burning throughout East Anglia.

Bury was, after all, only a few miles south of Rymer Point. Ailwin presumably got away before this happened. Chaos now ensued throughout England. No shire would come to the aid of another, showing that the king could not arrange any coordinated defence.

The Danes now proceeded to the Thames Valley and into Oxfordshire in the heart of Wessex and back to Bedford burning as they went. Northampton was burned on 30th November. They returned to their ships with much plunder, and over-wintered in this country. The Danes attacked once again, led by Thurkill, or Torkyl, the Tall. From September 8th to 19th, Canterbury was besieged and taken.

The Archbishop Aelfheah was murdered by the Danes for refusing to pay a tribute. A source from Scandinavia recorded a battle in at Newemouth, thought to be near Orford, in which the Danes suffered a defeat at the hands of Ulfcytel of East Anglia.

Nevertheless, the tide of war was flowing in their direction. The Chronicles listed all the shire counties where the Danes had effectively seized control by However, there are significantly neither Norfolk nor Suffolk so named, but instead, East Anglia. So the list begins; "They had then overrun: The Danish forces now left, only to return with Swein the next year. The dreaded Thurkill, or Torkyl, the Tall, now changed sides and brought 45 ships to England to join Aethelred in return for pay.

Despite the defeat at Ringmere, Ulfcytel kept his reputation. By he was at the head of the witness lists for Ministers attesting to writs and charters. He still does not appear to be an Ealdorman, despite the fact that he was the leader of the East Anglian forces in battle. From to , another tax was levied to pay for a defensive fleet to be built and maintained against further attacks. This was known as the "heregild", and was levied annually, unlike the "gafols" or tributes which were paid periodically to buy off a Danish attack.

By now Aethelred had lost his grip and many people, particularly in the old Danelaw areas, were ready to see Swein take over. Earl Uhtred and all of Northumbria immediately submitted to him, as did the people of Lindsey, followed by the people of the Five Boroughs.

Swein had taken hostages from every borough under his control, and he now left them and his fleet in the hands of his son, Cnut. Cnut must have been only about 13 years old at this time. Swein now provisioned his men, and taking horses, he marched south, and they" wrought the greatest evil that any raiding army could do. King Aethelred was holding London with the help of Torkyl the Tall, the Dane who was now working as a mercenary for Aethelred.

London held out, so Swein marched west to Bath, where he received the submission of Ealdorman Aethelmar and his western thegns. Returning north, Swein found that he controlled nearly all of England. London now decided to submit "because they were afraid he would do for them. Aethelred then left the fleet to go to the Isle of Wight. After a season he decided that the situation was hopeless and joined Emma in Normandy. England was again under Danish rule.

By now it was judged safe to return the remains of St Edmund to the monastery at Bury. On the journey back, the body passed through Stapleford, and miraculously cured the local Lord.

The manor of Stapleford was given to St Edmund in gratitude. An overnight stay took place at the wooden church at Greenstead, which remarkably survives today with many wooden features still in evidence. At the time it was probably entirely made of wood, as were most saxon buildings. St Edmund 'impales' Swein. Following his great triumph King Swein Forkbeard had little time to savour his victory. On 2nd February he died suddenly at his headquarters at Gainsborough. He was said to have been struck dead while threatening to sack St Edmund's town or extract a heavy ransom from it.

It did not take long for the idea to circulate that he had been struck down by St Edmund himself. A life size picture of this event, showing St Edmund impaling Swein with a spear would be be painted over Edmund's shrine by Abbot Samson.

The local people of Bedericsworth were said to have been so pleased to be spared Swein's extortions that they voluntarily agreed to pay a carucagium, or local land tax, to the monastery. The levy was four pence on every carucate of land. In later centuries no doubt this story was produced to answer local critics who questioned why this tax should be paid. After Swein's demise, his son Cnut or Canute was chosen as his replacement by the Danish forces. Canute was only 13 or 14 at this point.

Although the English had accepted Swein as king, they now advised that Aethelred should be sent for, but only if he "would govern them more justly than he did before. An agreement was drawn up with the Witan that "every Danish king be outlawed forever. Before he was ready, Aethelred invaded Lindsey, forcing Cnut to take his ships and hostages and escape seawards, leaving the Lindsey men to suffer the consequences of supporting him.

The unfortunate hostages were put ashore at Sandwich after having their hands and noses cut off. Cnut escaped back to Denmark. Torkyl now leaves the scene, only to turn up again in back on the Danish side, in support of Cnut! On 28th September, , a natural disaster occurred when "that great sea flood came widely throughout this country, and ran further inland than it ever did before, and drowned many settlements, and a countless number of human beings.

At an assembly in Oxford, Ealdorman Eadric killed the two foremost thegns in the Seven Boroughs of the north. King Aethelred now seized their property and his son, the aetheling Edmund, rode to take possession of the north. Although Eadric gathered an army to support Aethelred, the king lay sick at Cosham.

Eadric later took 40 of the king's ships, and submitted himself to Cnut. The West Saxons also submitted to Cnut, giving him hostages and horses, and Cnut stayed until mid-winter. Cnut continued his assault on England, with ships, including those that joined him with Eadric. They went over the Thames into Mercia at Cricklade, and thence to Warwickshire, and "killed all they came to.

He had been ill since the previous year. Edmund now joined Ealdorman Uhtred of Northumbria, where, instead of attacking Cnut, they raided south into Staffordshire, Shrewsbury and Chester.

Cnut now struck northwards through Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire and Huntingdonshire, to Stamford, Lincilnshire and up to Northumbria. Uhtred had to hurriedly return home, and he submitted to Cnut, but was subsequently killed. Cnut made Eric, son of Hakon the new Earl of Northumbria. Before Cnut's ships had reached the Thames, the King died. Ethelred the Unready died on the 23rd April, and the Chronicles commented, "after great toil and difficulties in his life".

The country split into two camps. Thorkill the Tall and his army, joined on the side of Cnut. By 9th May the Danes were laying siege to London, but Edmund had escaped to Wessex where he was received as king. Queen Emma, now the widow of Aethelred, was under Ulfcytel's protection in London. Edmund now demonstrated a determination to fight off the Danish invasions.

After midsummer came another battle at Sherston, where the Danes came off worst, despite support from the English forces of Eadric and Aelfmaer Darling. The next battle came when Edmund travelled to London, and raised the siege, driving the Danes back to their ships. Two days later came another battle at Brentford. While Edmund regrouped in Wessex, the Danes attacked London again, but they abandoned that attack and went up the Orwell in their ships, ultimately to attack Mercia.

Nothing is known about this campaign, but from the Orwell they could go inland via the Stour valley, or up towards Bury and Thetford. Scandinavian sources mention another battle of Ringmere fought by Earl Earik, and it is possible that this took place on this campaign.

They now attacked into Mercia, and returned with their ships, supplies, herds and other spoils to the Medway. Then for the 4th time King Edmund assembled the whole English nation to cross the Thames at Brentford, on into Kent, and drove the Danes back to Sheppey. Ealdorman Eadric now changed sides again, and re-joined KIng Edmund. The Danes again drove through Essex to Mercia.

Edmund raised his army for the fifth time, and pursued them into Essex, to a hill called Assendun. This name has been translated as either Ash tree Hill or Ass's Hill, and its location is still the subject of debate.

After fierce fighting at Assendun in Essex, Cnut emerged as the victor. Ealdorman Eadric was blamed by the Chronicle as being the first to flee from the battle. Ulfcytel, Ealdorman or Minister of East Anglia was killed, along with "all the chief men in the English race. There have been claims that the battle of Assendun took place at Ashdon, near Haverhill, but many historians have dismissed this location. They point to Ashingdon, also in Essex, but nearer Maldon, as the more likely site.

In Yates believed the Ashdon story and cited the legend of the Bartlow Hills. These seven remarkable barrows were said to have been thrown up to hold the dead from the Battle between Edmund Ironside and Cnut. Despite the red herring of the Bartlow Hills, there must remain some possibility that Assendun was located near Ashdon. In , Cnut had a memorial minster built of stone and lime at the battlefield which is also unidentified, but locating this church would also locate the battle.

At Hadstock, close by Ashdon, stands St Botolph's church, which certainly dates back to this time. The main door, dated to about , remains the oldest church door still in use in this country, while local legend includes a story involving a battle with the Danes. We should also recall that, at this time, Essex was not part of East Anglia.

So if Canute wanted to attack this area he would come up the Icknield Way, through Essex, and past Hadstock. Similarly, Ulfcytel would stand and defend his East Anglian Earldom on its southern border at about this point. He may have left us the villages now called the Ilketshalls in East Suffolk, in which case, he probably had a home manor and powerbase at Bungay. He was called "snilling", meaning "the valiant", and East Anglia had by now become popularly known as Ulfcytel's Land in the Skaldic verses of the time.

His origins are obscure as he does not seem to have had any relatives within the local aristocracy. Like Thurkill the Tall, he may have been a mercenary, brought over to provide an army to defend East Anglia in return for lands and position.

Ealdorman Eadric and the councillors now tried to broker a peace between the two kings, and the kings agreed to meet at Ola's Island in the River Severn. The Danish raiding army was paid off, and their ships went to London. Canute at W H Smith's. He was the first Danish King of all England, and was 23 years old. He was the famous King Canute, who was so upset by the constant praise of his court, that he is said to have demonstrated that he could not hold back the tides.

King Cnut or Canute, was descended from a long line of Danes who had caused great misery in England. One of his ancestors was Ivar the Boneless, who had killed St Edmund.

He was the son of King Sweyn Forkbeard who had died suddenly so it was said , after threatening to sack St Edmund's town. St Edmund must have hovered in the background of Cnut's mind as a saint not to be trifled with. East Anglia, and indeed all England, was now once more under Danish rule and was to remain part of a large Scandinavian empire until Cnut was now officially accepted as King of all England.

He had to find a form of government for his new kingdom which gave him overall control. He decided to divide it into four parts. Mercia was given to Eadric, and Northumbria to Eric. The term of Ealdorman was now replaced by the term Earl for each of the four rulers of these regions. Canute soon had Earl Eadric killed, along with several leaders of the old regime. He took firm control of the country. Emma and her children could have become the focus of any belated uprising, so Canute now ordered before the 1st August, that she "be fetched to him as wife.

This was a common name in English aristocratic circles, so was clarified by the addition of her origins, thus she was called Aelfgifu of Normandy.

Emma was the daughter of Duke Richard of Normandy, and had already had three sons by Aethelred, the eldest of whom would later become Edward the Confessor. Cnut too, was already married to Aelfgifu of Northampton, and she had two sons by him, one of whom was Harald Harefoot. Emma, however, seems to have made a pre-nuptial agreement with Cnut that only her sons could succeed to the English throne.

By this agreement, Cnut perpetuated the eventually successful Norman claim to the English throne. Since it has been the fashion for historians to assume that when Cnut married Emma, that he gave her West Suffolk as a wedding present. However there is another explanation of how she came into control of the eight and a half hundreds of Thingoe, which is explained in the entry for Torkyl the Tall was now the Earl of East Anglia, probably the most important man in the country after Cnut.

Scandinavian sources relate that it was Torkyl himself who had killed Ulfcytel of East Anglia at the Battle of Assenden. Torkyl now married Wulfhild, one of the daughters of King Aethelred, who was Ulfcytel's widow. Torkyl will remain a major figure in England until Cnut sat at Oxford to draw up laws governing both Danishmen and Englishmen. Perhaps surprisingly, this was based on the already existing English law code of King Edgar, which was itself based around Christian teaching.

In Cnut also became King of Denmark, and overlord of Norway. Cnut spent the year and the winter in his new kingdom of Denmark, having taken nine ships with him.

King Cnut or Canute. Cnut built a church dedicated to St Edmund at the site of his victory at Assendun, in Essex, which was consecrated in Stigand was installed as the Priest in charge of this new foundation. The location of Assendun is still in doubt, but may have been at Ashdon in Essex. The round towered Bartlow church has been given this attribution in the past, and the church of St Botolph at Hadstock has also been considered a likely candidate.

Whatever the location, this act of Cnut confirms an existing interest in St Edmund which was to help the development of St Edmund's shrine at Bury.

Canute was interested in religion and had already supported the cult of St Edmund. In he made a pilgrimage to the shrine at Bedericsworth. Cnut was now consolidating his hold on the country.

He had neutralised the old royal family by his marriage to Emma. He had killed off many of the old aristocracy who had opposed him.

One possible issue was the cult of St Edmund. The saint had resisted previous Danish invasions by Cnut's own ancestors. There were whispers about the fate of his father Sweyn having been struck down by St Edmund. As an English martyr, Cnut needed to ensure that St Edmund did not become the focus of resistance to his rule.

He needed to embrace the saint as his own, by enriching his shrine, and gaining control over it. At Bury, King Canute had to settle a dispute between the shrines' priests and the Bishop of Elmham whose diocese included Bedericsworth.

The priests refused to pay over the normal tithes etc due to the Bishop, believing that St Edmund was exempt from such dues. Possibly in consultation with his new wife, Queen Emma, Canute tried to sort out the situation. At the back of the Rule at folio is a note, translated by Hervey as follows: To appease the Bishop, the dozen secular priests, or clerks, at Bedericsworth were sacked, but the Bishop did not get control of the shrine.

King Cnut arranged for the building of a rotunda to the church of St Mary at Bury. Bishop Ailfric of Elmham then granted the monastery freedom from episcopal control and replaced the secular priests guarding the shrine by 20 Benedictine monks, 13 from St Benet Hulme in the Broads near Norwich and 7 from Ely.

The Benedictines were financially and spiritually independent of the Bishop. The 12th century Liber Eliensis, or Book of Ely, reported this event as follows: Book II, chapter He established there some monks from his own church of Ely, but others from Holm, and he supplied them with subsidies in abundance, with Earl Thorkell providing assistance, and, in addition, himself, for his own part, supplying the place with a collection of a great many goods and ornaments.

He made a grant assigning it to eternal liberty and he appointed in authority over them as father and abbot, a humble, modest, pious man, named Uvi. As for the priests who used to live there without subjection to a rule: However, it seems most likely that the church must have had some written texts already, if only for the conduct of prayers and bible readings.

Other texts, like the Psychomachia of Prudentius, also seem to pre-date the coming of Benedictines to Bury. The evicted secular priests numbered twelve, and Cnut gave them a privilege, or charter of their own. They were allowed to form a group known as the Duodeni, and given some recompense. They may have been allowed to keep some of the possessions of the monastery at that time, or they may have destroyed some documents in the confusion of the takeover.

People get shredded by werewolves and kanimas. Flocks of birds smash through windows and kill themselves. The entire high school orchestra gets possessed in the middle of a performance!

Ironically, the heroes are the only ones making any effort to cover up what is going on, and usually from specific people rather than the whole town. Near the end of season 3, though, it becomes evident that it's closer to a Buffy -level masquerade: Alphas have red eyes.

Kitsunes have flame-colored eyes, werejaguars have green eyes, wendigos have blank white eyes, and Parrish, the Hellhound has reddish-orange eyes. In all cases, their eyes change to show they're powering up.

Not in the traditional sense, but by supernatural standards Scott's pack has representatives from almost every species they've come across, by Season 3 the pack consists of an Alpha Werewolf Scott , a Beta Isaac , an Omega Derek , a hunter Allison , a banshee Lydia , a kitsune Kira , a druid Deaton and of course a human Stiles.

To Twilight and The Vampire Diaries. Though Word of God has promised there will never be vampires. Each season's opening sequence aside from season 1, which didn't have one is basically nothing but this. Enforced in the first episode of Season 4 when Derek is cocooned by Kate in an old church, only to be discovered as a teenager when Scott and Braeden show up to rescue him.

It can vary between seasons and even episodes, but the most consistent arrangement is: The Apathetic before she knew about the supernatural or The Realist after becoming friends with the others. Mostly justified or averted. It's implied Lydia's parents didn't notice her as much because of their divorce in early seasons, and her Mom does take a more active role later on. Isaac, Aiden and Ethan are all orphans so justifiably free-range.

Allison averts this trope, having extremely over-protective parents who actively try to control her social life, at least early on. Scott and his pack. Derek, despite extreme grumpiness and No Social Skills. Talia Hale and Deucalion, back in the day.

And in Season 4, Satomi and her pack really just want to be left alone and lead a quiet life away from hunters and other dangerous creatures which doesn't work, naturally. The Friends Who Never Hang: Several cases within Scott's pack, despite the group being True Companions. The most glaring example is Stiles and Allison, who - despite being the most central characters after Scott and similar, more cynical foils to him - have almost no scenes alone and zero bonding moments.

There's a similar case between Stiles and Kira: Stiles seems to genuinely like Kira initially but they're never seen hanging out together. In both cases, it's because Scott acts as an obvious buffer between his best friend and love interests, and it's unusual to have a scene with the people closest to him without him present. Basically absent from seasons one and two, where the only supernatural phenomena explicitly depicted were mainly related to werewolves.

When Scott and Stiles pursue the Kanima into the Jungle. Everyone in here's a dude! I think we're in a gay club! Getting Crap Past the Radar: Out bowling, Lydia bowls a perfect frame, after a game of lackluster throws.

Allison tells her she should stop sucking for Jackson's benefit. Believe me, I do plenty of sucking for his benefit. Another instance in the second episode, again with Lydia when she was talking to Scott about him not playing.

I prefer my boyfriend to be at peak performance. In the season 2 opener, Stiles and Scott try to persuade Jackson to help them search for a missing Lydia who they believe is becoming a werewolf. Jackson tells them to worry about the search party instead.

You've got this all backwards McCall. When I was with Lydia, you should've seen the scratch marks she left on me. In the eleventh episode of season 2, when Coach Finstock is finally going to let Stiles into a lacrosse game. Unless you'd rather play with yourself!

I already did that today. In the seventh episode of season 3, Allison and Scott end up hiding in a closet, standing face-to-face closely together, resulting in him getting a bit excited. Apparently he has less control over that than he does over his werewolf transformations.

Allison chastises him and turns around, which causes him to remark that that only makes it worse Malia How did you do that?

Theo Do you want to learn? I could show you. Malia You are showing me plenty right now. Greenberg, a member of the lacrosse team who possibly may only exist in the mind of Coach Finstock.

A rather important element of season 3B. Satomi, one of Noshiko's fellow inmates in the Oak Creek internment camp, is constantly playing Go to keep herself calm and conceal her werewolf nature. The Nogitsune holds Stiles captive in his own mind by forcing him to play an endless game of Go.

Noshiko explains to Kira and the rest of the group the strategy of the Nogitsune, Scott's pack, and herself using the game. Finally, the Season 3 finale is titled "The Divine Move" and features a version of such a move. Melissa and the Sheriff are very caring and capable, if snarky, parents, despite raising Scott and Stiles by themselves and working demanding, underpaid jobs.

Both of them also prove to be incredibly supportive when they discover their son's supernatural heroics. Chris Argent averts this initially, being worryingly over-protective and dragging his daughter all over the country. Though he's much better than his own father, and tries to shield Allison from their life more than most hunters. He steps into this in Season 3, once he's given up his hunter lifestyle. Also Kira's father despite being amazingly embarrassing.

Gosh Darn It to Heck! Arguably played by Scott under the effects of wolfsbane in Season 1. I'm so far from okay , right now! Surprisingly averted in quite a few instances, particularly in the first and sixth episodes.

Son of a bitch! You're the one always bitching that nothing happens in this town. Kate certainly wasn't created with the purpose to gain lots of fans. She initially seems like a Cool Aunt , but her violence and cruelty against werewolves in general, and her later revealed sexually exploitative relationship with teenaged Derek soon turned people against her.

According to Kate's actress Jill Wagner it got so bad, that even the crew started throwing things at her when she filmed scenes in Season 1. Was anyone really supposed to like Kali? Theo revealed himself as a Bitch in Sheep's Clothing by his second episode, but he lost a lot of people's sympathy when he sent Donovan to kill Stiles.

Destroying Scott's pack by turning everyone against each other and hitting Lydia and then rendering her catatonic in the mid-season finale may have sealed the deal for most of the remaining audience. Redemption is a recurring theme. Chris Argent has come a long way from being hostile towards werewolves by default to now seeing some of them as valuable allies, and being willing to protect whole packs.

Isaac starts off his werewolf career as what seems like a potential bad guy, but he gets better. Ethan, who may never have been truly evil in the first place based on Scott's judgment, decides to stop Kali from killing Derek. To get his brother to back him, he recruits Lydia, guessing that Aiden will not be willing to allow Kali to hurt her either.

In Season 6, Theo, after literally going through hell, becomes a lot more sympathetic to Scott's pack and even develops a sort of buddy-buddy thing with Liam. In "Motel California;" Coach Finstock decides to put the kids up for the night in the motel with the highest suicide rate in the state. Needless to say, trouble ensues.

His Story Repeats Itself: Derek has first-hand experience and reasoning as to why he thinks Scott shouldn't date an Argent. Additionally, both their First Loves died in their arms. Quite a bit between Scott and Stiles, in the traditional best-friend type.

He seems utterly unfazed by Stiles coming in his window, hanging off his roof, etc. Do you enjoy hurting me? Stiles also has his own copy of the key to the house. Scott has no problem with Stiles walking in on him showering. Stiles wonders if Danny doesn't like him and asks Scott about it, saying, "Am I unattractive to gay guys? He later asks Danny himself if he finds him attractive. Derek does not care for anyone's personal boundaries.

If you slow down any scene which involves Derek getting a little too close Any scene between Derek and Scott is going to come off this way. In fact, as written, Derek is the Angel to Scott's Buffy. Any scene between Derek and Jackson. Namely when Derek forces Jackson against walls and intimidates him. Did I mention that all of the above takes place in a locker room? Stiles using a shirtless Derek to get Danny to help him.

You may bat for the other team, but you still play ball, don't you, Danny? You're a horrible person. Actually, this happens a lot. Scott pins Danny down and smells him during lacrosse practice, Derek really enjoys pinning Stiles to walls, and the males in this series are just really really touchy-feely.

Used repeatedly, by both female and male characters. Prior to the series, Kate Argent insinuated herself into Derek's life by seducing him for the sole purpose of gathering enough information to murder his entire family. Erica took on this role a couple of times, notably with Stiles and Jackson, with a somewhat low success rate. Ethan and Aiden in Season 3 are also serving as this, seducing Lydia and Danny because one of them might be used as a lever against Scott.

Subverted, as both end up falling in love with their mark. Lydia turns the tables, luring Aiden away from Ethan so that Scott and Stiles can ask him some questions. Aiden is surprised that Lydia is willing to have anything to do with him after he helped murder Boyd, but it doesn't prevent him from accepting her advances.

Jennifer does this with Derek, both to get his help and because she is infatuated with him. In comparison to the movie. Sex scenes, gorgeous actors and shameless fanservice out the wazoo. Used by the coach during a particularly brutal lacrosse game. Used again in season 3B to see if someone is dreaming or not.

Except as photographs of a beast-like figure in one, and then a human-like figure in another. Discussed in "Monstrous" when Satomi says that werewolves are inherently violent creatures.

Chris Argent agrees, and she retorts "Aren't we all? Meredith also believes this about all supernaturals, including herself. For some unknown reason, Deucalion plans his confrontation with Jennifer to occur right around the time of a lunar eclipse that will render him and all the other werewolves powerless , raising serious questions about his tactical skills.

Aside from the title and a few character names protagonist Scott, best friend "Stiles" Stilinski, coach Bobby Finstock , the series goes well out of its way to be completely different from the original film, specifically tone wise and going for a style similar to The Vampire Diaries.

Stiles calls Derek a sourwolf. The fandom took it and ran. Scott's mom and Sheriff Stilinski while tied up by Jennifer. Jennifer has sex with a badly-injured Derek and his wounds begin to miraculously start healing, because by this point she has acquired the power to heal. Lydia kisses Stiles to stop his panic attack. Combined with Artistic Licence Medicine , because that's really not how it should be done in Real Life.

Largely averted, as Mama Mccall, Sheriff Stilinski and Chris Argent are all well-developed characters and frequently work with their children to combat the supernatural. Kira's parents join their ranks in Season 3, and even Lydia's mom becomes more involved in her life. Played straight with Erica and Boyd's parents who are never mentioned even when their kids undergo obvious physical transformations and spend their nights training with Derek in an underground subway.

Just a Stupid Accent: The assassins in "Perishable" attempt this with their targets. Deputy Parrish survives it, while Scott, Malia, and Liam are rescued. Killed Off for Real: And who could forget Allison? Courtesy of Kate Argent, who does not approve of her stooge's lame jokes. You're gonna go there and that's the best you got? Of all the cars in the school's parking lot, Derek stumbles in front of Stiles' in "Magic Bullet".

You've gotta be kidding me, this guy is everywhere. Left the Background Music On: A rare serious and even creepy example in 3. Lydia discovers an audio recording of the high school's band teacher being attacked by the killer, and after his body hits the piano keys, the chanting swells seemingly as part of the soundtrack He doesn't know it at the time, but this line counts for Scott in hindsight.

He does end up on the first line. First line on the team and first line of defense for everyone in town. And all within one season as predicted. Scott "I can't sit out again! My whole life is sitting on the sidelines. This season I make first line.

Beacon Hills has unusually strong telluric energy currents running through it, making certain locations appropriate for magical rituals. Unlike traditional ley lines, these currents are not straight lines.

Their presence may explain why the city is a Weirdness Magnet. A frequent occurrence in Scott's bedroom in the first two seasons. Initially, it's Derek waiting in Scott's chair for Scott to turn on the lights, but eventually Gerard, Isaac, and even Scott manage to surprise someone coming into Scott's bedroom by waiting patiently in the dark.

Like an Old Married Couple: Honestly the show wouldn't be that different if Scott and Stiles were spouses instead of best friends. They know practically everything about each other, Stiles has a key to Scott's house, their respective families are practically merged, they admit they can't imagine living without the other and banter as if they've been together 50 years.

Little Dead Riding Hood Scott is wearing a red hoodie the night he's bitten. An inversion, where the wolf is the one in danger: In Season 2, Scott wears a red hooded shirt the night he's almost killed by Mrs. Lock and Load Montage: Chris Argent and his associates preparing to hunt down Derek, Scott, and the Alpha. Allison's preparations to hunt down Derek for the death of her mother. Locked Out of the Loop: Most of the parents and friends are initially locked out of the loop of the supernatural activities their kids are a part of, but are eventually let in on the secret, usually by necessity: Agent McCall has figured out something is up and has demanded an explanation.

Subverted with Danny, who has been aware of the supernatural for an unknown period of time, and even knows about Beacon Hills being a Weirdness Magnet. Kira used to be Locked Out of the Loop about her mother's true nature, until her own kitsune powers manifested.

Deputy Parrish figured out that something was going on, but came to the wrong conclusions, believing for instance that Lydia was psychic. He also didn't know he was supernatural himself. Love at First Sight: First sound in the case of Scott and Allison, but it's still the case. Scott's been in love with that girl since he first herd her heartbeat. Justified for werewolves and other supernatural creatures. Their bodies naturally have a much more powerful Healing Factor than humans.

Aiden and Ethan need to take their shirts off before merging, but their pants aren't a problem. On the other hand, werewolves who can turn into a full animal form have to take off their clothes before transformation and change back completely naked. Subverted with Coach Finstock when he gets shot in the abdomen by an arrow. His first response is a deadpan "aw crap". Then he begins to freak out about dying.

Maybe Magic, Maybe Mundane: The entirety of "Motel California" thrives in this. Throughout the episode, a couple of people including Scott, undergo visions of their haunted past and present and hearing voices as well, making some of the others believe that the hotel is haunted, since it was site of quite a few grisly murders and suicides. As it turns out, the werewolves were purposefully poisoned with wolfsbane, while Lydia experienced a surge of her burgeoning powers.

Scott said it to Allison at the formal, then after the fight, the exchange is reversed. Why did you do that? Because I love you. In "The Benefactor", Scott reassures Liam after he's been changed into a werewolf by telling him "You're not a monster, you're a werewolf. In "Superposition", after Lydia automatically writes Stiles' name, who has been erased from everyone's memories.

What the hell is a Stiles? The town's name, Beacon Hills, is revealed to be entirely descriptive. When active, the Nemeton acts as a "beacon" drawing energy from telluric currents, which attracts supernatural creatures.

A lot of the lies and half-truths that Scott and Stiles have been using to hide the werewolves would fall into this category. Stiles even gets caught in an Explain, Explain So you lied to me? That depends on how you define lying. Well, I define it as not telling the truth, how do you define it? Mistaken for Prank Call: The Alpha in Season 1 makes sure this will happen. The call—someone is breaking into the high school—would not normally have been ignored as such, except there was an anonymous tip-off telling the Sheriff's office that there would be prank calls on that very topic.

All the younger male characters - with the exception of Stiles - seem to spend an oddly significant amount of their time shirtless, but Derek is heading into Taylor Lautner territory. The scene in Season 2 when Derek hallucinates himself naked in the big empty white space for no apparent reason? It was literally added because Tyler Hoechlin had bulked up for the second season and he was surprised he didn't have any shirtless scenes. The characters are actually aware of it in-universe.

Stiles manages to get Danny to trace a text by making Derek go shirtless in front of him. Muggle Born of Mages: Lycanthropy runs in families, but it's confirmed in the fourth season that werewolves can also have human children.

Muggles Do It Better: Werewolf hunters can be extremely effective and deadly in their usage of modern weapons and technology. Season 4 proves that human assassins are pretty good, too. Never Mess with Granny: Araya Calavera, the iron-fisted leader of the Calavera hunters.

On the werewolf side, we have Satomi Ito, who not only dispatches gun-toting assassins, but taught herself how to control her rage through mantras and playing go.

It does get him killed in the end. Nothing Exciting Ever Happens Here: In the pilot, this is what motivates Stiles and Scott to go into the woods looking for half a body in the middle of the night. This, of course, leads to Scott getting bitten. You're the one bitching that nothing happens in this town. Not What It Looks Like: Unsurprisingly happens a lot. For instance, Sheriff Stilinski catches Stiles and his girlfriend Malia with chains in the fourth season and gets the wrong idea , a Call-Back to a similar scene with Scott.

The Darach's magical storm and earthquake immediately cease when she is killed. The magical wounds inflicted by the Oni begin to heal as soon as the Nogitsune is defeated. Averted with female werewolves. If she lives, she'll become a werewolf. She'll be incredibly powerful. Yeah, and once a month she'll go out of her freakin' mind and try to tear me apart.

Well, actually, considering that she's a woman A dialogue in Season 2 gives us this lovely exchange: There's a price you pay for this kind of power. You get the ability to heal; but tonight you're going to want to kill anything you can find. Good thing I had my period last week, then. Erica admits that she's wet herself during a seizure at least once. And this one is not Played for Laughs , though her classmates didn't seem to agree.

Off with His Head! One of the assassins hunting supernatural creatures in season 4 Violet uses a thermo-cut wire that can burn through necks while choking someone. Through it all, and various other relationship, Scott and Alison always truly loved each other. They appeared in the second half of season 3 working for Noshiko Yukimura the kitsune.

In sharp contrast to the usual burly Oni, they look more ninja like wearing hannya mask with no horns. They are also weak against sunlight and can turn into black smoke.

To the point you begin to wonder if there's some procreation restriction in Beacon Hills as Scott, Stiles, Allison, Lydia, Kira, Jackson and Liam are all only children. Then there's Derek, Isaac and Malia who had siblings but they were killed off before the show began though Derek's long-lost sister Cora does return briefly. Our Banshees Are Louder: Season 3B introduces Meredith; Season 4 reveals that Lydia's grandmother Lorraine was also a banshee. Being a banshee comes with the ability to sense death and a piercing scream.

In this universe, banshees scream to drown out noises that might distract them from listening on a psychic wavelength only they can hear. They can also use their scream to purposefully hurt other supernaturals. Our Werebeasts Are Different: While werewolves are the primary focus of the series, more shapeshifters have appeared as the series progresses, all of which have ties to werewolves and many of the same perks.

The Kanima that is created by a mutation of the werewolf bite, with quite a few differences: Kanimas have a paralytic venom that comes from their claws. Has a pretty powerful one that was able to toss Scott around.

Has this ability with it's master. Werecoyotes , such as Peter Hale's daughter Malia, seem to be more similar, if not identical to werewolves. Werejaguars like Kate Argent - due to being scratched by an alpha - are introduced in Season 4. They have black spots and blue skin , as well as glowing green eyes. Our Werewolves Are Different: So much that there is a whole separate page with tropes for them. The show abuses slow motion to an almost criminal degree, not only applying it to scenes where it would normally be necessary, such as super-fast werewolf battles , but to almost every moment with even the slightest dramatic significance that does not use dialogue for emphasis instead.

Each and every one of the main characters has this to varying degrees. Scott's dad had problems with alcohol and left when Scott was very young; when he returns in Season 3, Scott takes quite a while to warm up to him. Stiles' mom died, and he blames himself for it. When Lydia's parents divorced, her father forced her to choose which one of them she wanted to live with. She does get along well with her mother, though.

Derek, obviously, since most of his family were killed by rogue hunters. Jackson was adopted and has never met his birth parents, leading to an almost pathological need to prove himself. Allison's parents are Happily Married , but also werewolf hunters , who prove dangerous to her new friends. And then her mother commits suicide after being bitten by an Alpha werewolf, which her grandfather uses to turn her against werewolves in general.

Isaac's father was horrifically abusive and his mother died sometime before the start of the series. Malia appears to have accidentally killed her mother and younger sister, and her father seems shattered from years of believing his whole family had died.

Then it turns out she was adopted, and she's actually the biological child of Peter Hale, and a woman who calls herself the Desert Wolf , whose first name is Corrine and is an assassin hunted by the US government, and who wants to kill Malia , leading to a whole new level of this. Kira stands out as the lone aversion among the protagonists; while her mother is a nigh-immortal kitsune who is responsible for the events of Season 3B and her dad is an amazingly embarrassing teacher, they're obviously quite a stable family.

In a heartwarming exchange Melissa acts as a mother substitute for Stiles, while the Sheriff acts as a father substitute for Scott. Which makes Scott and Stiles referring to themselves as brothers even sweeter.

Melissa also acts as a parental substitute for the orphaned Isaac in Season 3, including letting him live with them in Season 3. Chris Argent also becomes something of a father-figure to him after Allison's death. Activated, it works as a beacon , that draws supernatural creatures to the town and county of Beacon Hills.

The Beacon Hills Sheriff Department is rather ill-equipped to deal with the massive surge of supernatural crime in the first few seasons. It gets a little better after Sheriff Stilinski - and later on Deputy Parrish - is brought into the fault.

Invoked in-universe in Season 2: Scott claims that the main reason why all of the characters are having so many problems is that nobody trusts anyone else, and keeps vital information from others, which will end up in someone dying eventually. He is certainly proven right, too: Allison falling under her grandfather's thrall and becoming obsessed with hunting down Derek and his betas after her mother's suicide likely wouldn't have happened, if anyone had told her that Victoria had only been bitten because Derek tried to keep her from killing Scott.

Stiles lies to Scott about killing Donovan in self-defense, Scott lies to Kira about seeing a fox spirit aura around her, Kira lies to Scott about her worries, and it all ends about as well as you would expect.

I thought you were psychic, bitch. Everyone in Beacon Hills shops at Macy's. Cool Alpha werewolves favor Ice Breakers as a way to combat dog breath. Occasionally they are subtle, but often fairly obvious, making sure to show closeups of the products and their labels. Taken to new lows in the third season when the characters take breaks from trying to not die from supernatural weirdness to helpfully inform each other and the audience of the awesome features of their sweet new cars.

Season 4 sees a bunch of assassins arriving in town. Promotion to Opening Titles: Dylan Sprayberry Liam in Season 5. Bourne Chris in Season 6.

These are some examples in the cast: Jackson left off-screen in between Seasons 2 and 3, having moved to London with his family. Later, due to her deal with the skinwalkers, Kira returns to New Mexico to be taught how to fully navigate her Fox Spirit.

She promises Scott she will return, hands him her shuriken Tail to keep it safe for her and gives him a kiss goodbye in Season 5. Every member of Derek's pack was a confirmed misfit before being turned into a werewolf.

Scott's "pack" counts as well, containing at various points werewolves, were coyotes, kitsune and banshees, as much as nerdy outsiders and werewolf hunters. Stiles always gets up to some serious shenanigans like stealing police property and kidnapping one of his fellow students Scott always misses out on school due to being a werewolf The Beacon Hills police, specifically Sheriff Stilinski, have a lot of trouble closing cases due to most homicides having to do with the supernatural - which the police obviously have no experience with.

At the start of season 3B, Agent McCall is looking to impeach the sheriff due to his seeming inability to do his job. In "The Fox and the Wolf": I don't know how you guys do it.

You're all so strong. Hell, you manage to keep your grades up. Well, I'm failing Econ. Thanks to all the damage it took in Season 3, the hospital is starting to have money issues. Likewise, Sheriff Stilinski is having trouble paying off the debt he owes to Eichen House in Season 4 after Stiles was placed there in the previous season. Lydia's mother is getting a job as a teacher and plans to sell off her mother-in-law's weekend house due to money issues caused by her recent divorce.

An assassin is poised to shoot Stiles, and Agent McCall is forced to shoot him first. In the next episode, we see him going through the procedures to prove that lethal force was necessary in that situation, and he has to leave town for review. All the supernatural dangers take their toll on newly turned werewolf Liam, who suffers from anxiety and nightmares as a result.

Season 4 introduces several professional assassins that mostly go by monikers like The Mute , The Orphans , and The Chemist. They are apparently so well known that even the FBI has heard of some of them.

Peter told Meredith about them as well. The Desert Wolf deserves a special mention, given that she's Malia's mother. A plot necessity for this kind of show. Harris, the chemistry teacher, who was also a Red Herring for the kanima's master in Season 2.

Season 3 had a handful of possible Darachs and possession victims, while Season 4 had a whole slew of characters act as Red Herrings for the Benefactor. In Season 5A, we have some red herrings for possible chimeras, and in 5B, everyone wearing a size ten sneaker for the chimera hosting the Beast.

Amusingly, one of the kids' classmates, Sydney , is a Red Herring both times. Appears at various points throughout the show. Derek's Triskelion tattoo, which specifically represents the three types of werewolf: Alpha, Beta, and Omega. The Stilinski saying about incidents: What's that thing you say about threes? One, two - [Bird crashes into the window, followed by an entire flock] Running Gag: In Season 1, both Scott and Melissa almost hit Stiles with one when they mistake him for a burglar at different occasions; Stiles: Seriously, do either of you even play baseball?

In Season 3's "The Overlooked" Stiles brings it to the hospital and shatters it when hitting Ethan and Aiden in their merged alpha form. Then, in "Lunar Ellipse," he uses a new aluminum bat to keep a root cellar from collapsing. In Season 4, Lydia is convinced early on that baseball bats are useless weapons against supernatural creatures - mirroring her feelings that her own powers are less useful than the were creatures' claws and fangs - only to storm a monster with one in the finale, figuring that she should use everything at her disposal to help her friends.

Stiles wanting to know if gay guys find him attractive. Coach Finstock yelling at Greenberg, a member of the lacrosse team who may only exist in his head From Season 3, people trying to explain Lydia's powers as her being psychic.

Deputy Parrish is especially fond of this in Season 4 which makes sense, since he's at that point unaware that supernatural beings exist. In Seasons 4 and 5, Kira and Scott's makeout sessions keep getting interrupted by enemy attacks or inconveniently arriving allies. Running on All Fours: The fastest way of travel for Betas and Alphas. Same with Meredith Walker, the Benefactor. Zig-zagged in " Motel California ", the most suicide-heavy motel in California.

Shortly after the kids arrive, Lydia starts hearing voices, apparently belonging to the people who killed themselves, while the werewolves start behaving first aggressively, and then suicidal except for Isaac, who seems virtually catatonic.

While it turns out that the werewolves weren't behaving strangely because of the motel, but because the Darach poisoned them with wolfsbane, Lydia is later revealed to be a banshee who hears the dead, making it possible that there were ghosts after all.

Scott and Allison tried this in Season 2, using Stiles as their liaison. In the third season episode "Galvanize", Barrow is talking about Village of the Damned and specifies that he means the original, not the remake , because nobody likes crappy remakes.

Every season had at least one of these. Season 1 had Peter Hale first kill his niece to become an alpha and then all of the people responsible for his family's murder.

Season 2 had the Kanima's master, Matt Daehler, who used the Kanima to murder the swim team who had watched him almost drown and then did nothing while their coach bullied him into keeping quiet about it.

Season 3A had the Darach, Jennifer Blake, a former emissary, whose alpha Kali was meant to kill her whole pack in order to join the Alpha pack, but only disfigured and severely wounded her druid out of pity.

Jennifer swore to avenge herself and kill the Alpha pack to prevent them from causing more harm; to gain the power to do this, she sacrifices twelve people. In Season 4, there is also a Wendigo family who keeps a whole bunch of corpses in a meatlocker.

Also, the Beast's human incarnation, Sebastien Valet, who may have been a serial killer before he turned into a werewolf, and his accomplice, Marcel, who later murdered countless people as one of the Dread Doctors, in an attempt to get Sebastien back from the dead. At Beacon Hills High School, lacrosse is a big deal. The Sheriff seems generally very happy when girls are interested in his son and Melissa is encouraging about Scott's relationships.

The original Teen Wolf: Peter saying that when he was in high school they played basketball. Derek was also on the basketball team. In Season 2, when the lacrosse team they're playing against is the Beavers, the name of the team from the original film.

To the werewolf classic The Wolf Man Haven't you ever seen The Wolf Man? Jackson moved to London before the beginning of Season 3, leading Lydia to explicitly give a shout out to An American Werewolf in London. Stiles feels like the eternal sidekick in Season 1: Why is it starting to feel like you're Batman and I'm Robin?

I don't wanna be Robin all the time! Not even some of the time? Also, in Season 4, Stiles asking an especially hirsute member of the opposing Lacrosse team if he's on gamma radiation.

Stiles saying he would make a better Yoda than Derek. Stiles lamenting at various points that Scott still hasn't watched Star Wars ; also the fact that nobody besides Stiles and Parrish and maybe Chris seems to have watched Star Wars. Scott comparing himself to the Incredible Hulk.

In Season 5's "Condition Terminal," two characters enact a version of the "match trick" scene from Lawrence of Arabia. To The Manchurian Candidate: The card Parrish keeps seeing in relation to Lydia is the Queen of Diamonds - the same card that was used as a trigger to activate a sleeper agent in the movie. In Season 5, there is the Nightclub "Sinema," which shows old horror movies: The former turns out to be Foreshadowing for the midseason finale, where several dead characters are resurrected.

When Derek is poisoned with wolfsbane, Stiles thinks he got shot by one, leading to Derek calling him an idiot. According to Jennifer, the myth that silver kills werewolves is not a reference to the metal, but to the Argent family, argent being the French word for silver. Fittingly, the Argents forge a silver bullet as a symbolic initiation ritual.

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