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Krasnogorsky , Moscow Oblast Brazil: Sochi , Krasnodar Krai Colombia: Verkhneuslonsky , Republic of Tatarstan Costa Rica: Roshchino , Leningrad Oblast [79] Denmark: Anapa , Krasnodar Krai Egypt: Grozny , Chechen Republic England: Repino , Saint Petersburg [80] France: Istra , Moscow Oblast Germany: Vatutinki , Moscow [81] Iceland: Gelendzhik , Krasnodar Krai Iran: Bakovka, Moscow Oblast Japan: Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan Mexico: Khimki , Moscow Oblast Morocco: Voronezh , Voronezh Oblast Nigeria: Yessentuki , Stavropol Krai Panama: Saransk , Republic of Mordovia Peru: Sochi, Krasnodar Krai Portugal: Ramenskoye , Moscow Oblast Russia: Khimki, Moscow Oblast Saudi Arabia: Kaluga , Kaluga Oblast Serbia: Svetlogorsk , Kaliningrad Oblast South Korea: Krasnodar , Krasnodar Krai Sweden: Gelendzhik, Krasnodar Krai Switzerland: Togliatti , Samara Oblast Tunisia: Pervomayskoye, Moscow Oblast Uruguay: Bor , Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.

FIFA Rules for classification: Group stage tiebreakers H Host. Luzhniki Stadium , Moscow. Central Stadium , Yekaterinburg. Krestovsky Stadium , Saint Petersburg. Rostov Arena , Rostov-on-Don. Cosmos Arena , Samara. Volgograd Arena , Volgograd. Fisht Olympic Stadium , Sochi. Mark Geiger United States.

Kazan Arena , Kazan. Mordovia Arena , Saransk. Kaliningrad Stadium , Kaliningrad. Antonio Mateu Lahoz Spain.

Otkritie Arena , Moscow. Nizhny Novgorod Stadium , Nizhny Novgorod. Matthew Conger New Zealand. Joel Aguilar El Salvador. Jair Marrufo United States. Group stage tiebreakers Notes:. Smolov Ignashevich Golovin Cheryshev.

Cuadrado Muriel Uribe Bacca. Kane Rashford Henderson Trippier Dier. Smolov Dzagoev Fernandes Ignashevich Kuzyayev. Live It Up Nicky Jam song. Association football portal Russia portal s portal. However FIFA has discussed abolishing the competition. Harry Kane 6 goals [1]. Mehdi Abid Charef Algeria. Bamlak Tessema Weyesa Ethiopia. Corey Rockwell United States.

Ricardo Montero Costa Rica. Bertrand Brial New Caledonia. Otkritie Arena Spartak Stadium. Krestovsky Stadium Saint Petersburg Stadium. Fisht Olympic Stadium Fisht Stadium. Central Stadium Ekaterinburg Arena. Advance to knockout stage. Group H vs Poland matchday 2; 24 June. Group C vs France matchday 3; 26 June. The sacred scriptures, embodying as they do the results of intuitive experiences of seers, therefore, should be accepted as authoritative , and reasoning should be made subordinate to them.

Whereas the sacred texts thus continued to exercise some influence on philosophical thinking, the influence of mythology declined considerably with the rise of the systems. The myths of creation and dissolution of the universe persisted in the theistic systems but were transformed into metaphors and models. With the Nyaya problem of knowledge — Vaisheshika analysis of nature systems, for example, the model of a potter making pots determined much philosophical thinking, as did that of a magician conjuring up tricks in the Advaita nondualist Vedanta.

The nirukta etymology of Yaska, a 5th-century- bce Sanskrit scholar, tells of various attempts to interpret difficult Vedic mythologies: Such interpretations apparently prevailed in the Upanishads; the myths were turned into symbols, though some of them persisted as models and metaphors. The ancient Indian tradition, however, classified the classical systems darshana s into orthodox astika and unorthodox nastika.

Astika may also mean one who accepts the authority of the Vedas; nastika then means one who does not accept that authority. Not all among the astika philosophers, however, were theists, and, even if they were, they did not all accord the same importance to the concept of God in their systems. The Samkhya system did not involve belief in the existence of God, without ceasing to be astika , and Yoga a mental-psychological-physical meditation system made room for God not on theoretical grounds but only on practical considerations.

The Purva-Mimamsa of Jaimini c. The Advaita Vedanta of Shankara rejects atheism in order to prove that the world had its origin in a conscious, spiritual being called Ishvara , or God, but in the long run regards the concept of Ishvara as a concept of lower order that becomes negated by a metaphysical knowledge of brahman , the absolute, nondual reality.

Only the non-Advaita schools of Vedanta and the Nyaya-Vaisheshika remain zealous theists, and, of these schools, the god of the Nyaya-Vaisheshika school does not create the eternal atoms, universals, or individual souls.

For a truly theistic conception of God, one has to look to the non-Advaita schools of Vedanta, the Vaishnavite devotees of Vishnu as the supreme God , and the Shaivite devotees of Shiva as the supreme God philosophical systems. Whereas Hindu religious life continues to be dominated by these last-mentioned theistic systems, the philosophies went their own ways, far removed from that religious demand.

Dasgupta , a 20th-century Indian philosopher, divided the history of Indian philosophy into three periods: What Dasgupta calls the prelogical stage covers the pre-Mauryan and the Mauryan period c. The logical period begins roughly with the Kushanas 1st—2nd centuries ce and reaches its highest development during the Gupta era 3rd—5th centuries ce and the age of imperial Kanauj 7th century ce.

In its early prelogical phase, Indian thought, freshly developing in the Indian subcontinent, actively confronted and assimilated the diverse currents of pre-Vedic and non-Vedic elements in the native culture that the Indo-Aryan-speaking migrants from the north sought to appropriate.

The marks of this confrontation are to be noted in every facet of Indian religion and thought: Both religious thought and philosophical discussion received continuous challenges and confrontations.

The resulting responses have a dialectical character: Nevertheless, through all the vicissitudes of social and cultural life, Brahmanical thought has been able to maintain a fairly strong current of continuity.

In the chaotic intellectual climate of the pre-Mauryan era, there were skeptics ajnanikah who questioned the possibility of knowledge. There were also materialists, the chief of which were the Ajivikas deterministic ascetics and the Lokayatas the name by which Charvaka doctrines—denying the authority of the Vedas and the soul—are generally known. Furthermore, there existed the two unorthodox schools of yadrichhavada accidentalists and svabhavaha naturalists , who rejected the supernatural.

Kapila , the legendary founder of the Samkhya school, supposedly flourished during the 7th century bce. Proto-Jain ideas were already in existence when Mahavira flourished 6th century bce , the founder of Jainism, initiated his reform. Gautama the Buddha flourished c. He sought to forge a new path—though not new in all respects—that was to assure blessedness to man.

Orthodoxy, however, sought to preserve itself in a vast Kalpa-sutra ritual literature—with three parts: Though the writing of the sutras continued over a long period, the sutras of most of the various darshana s probably were completed between the 6th and 3rd centuries bce.

Two of the sutras appear to have been composed in the pre-Mauryan period but after the rise of Buddhism ; these works are the Mimamsa-sutra s of Jaimini and the Vedanta-sutra s of Badarayana c. The Mauryan period brought, for the first time, a strong centralized state. The Greeks had been ousted, and a new self-confidence characterized the beginning of the period. This seems to have been the period in which the epics Mahabharata and Ramayana were initiated, though their composition went on through several centuries before they took the forms they now have.

Manu , a legendary lawgiver, codified the Dharma-shastra ; Kautilya , a minister of King Chandragupta Maurya , systematized the science of political economy Artha-shastra ; and Patanjali , an ancient author or authors, composed the Yoga-sutra s. Brahmanism tried to adjust itself to the new communities and cultures that were admitted into its fold: The Bhagavadgita —the most famous work of this period—symbolized the spirit of the creative synthesis of the age. A new ideal of karma as opposed to the more ancient one of renunciation was emphasized.

The logical period of Indian thought began with the Kushan dynasty 1st—2nd centuries ce. Gautama author of the Nyaya-sutra s; probably flourished at the beginning of the Christian era and his 5th-century commentator Vatsyayana established the foundations of the Nyaya as a school almost exclusively preoccupied with logical and epistemological issues.

Though Buddhist logic in the strict sense of the term had not yet come into being, an increasingly rigorous logical style of philosophizing developed among the proponents of these schools of thought. During the reign of the Guptas , there was a revival of Brahmanism of a gentler and more-refined form.

Vaishnavism of the Vasudeva cult, centring on the prince-god Krishna and advocating renunciation by action, and Shaivism prospered, along with Buddhism and Jainism.

The most notable feature, however, was the rise of the Buddhist Yogachara school, of which Asanga 4th century ce and his brother Vasubandhu were the great pioneers. The greatest names of Indian philosophy belong to the post-Gupta period from the 7th to the 10th century. At that time Buddhism was on the decline and the Tantric cults were rising, a situation that led to the development of the Tantric forms of Buddhism. Shaivism was thriving in Kashmir and Vaishnavism in the southern part of India.

The great philosophers Mimamshakas Kumarila 7th century , Prabhakara 7th—8th centuries , Mandana Mishra 8th century , Shalikanatha 9th century , and Parthasarathi Mishra 10th century belong to this age. The greatest Indian philosopher of the period, however, was Shankara. The debate between Brahmanism and Buddhism was continued, on a logical level, by philosophers of the Nyaya school—Uddyotakara, Vachaspati Mishra, and Udayana Udayanacharya.

Muslim rule in India had consolidated itself by the 11th century, by which time Buddhism, for all practical purposes, had disappeared from the country. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Timbuktu founded about ce was a centre of commerce and learning during the time of the Mali 13th—16th century and Songhai 15th—16th century empires; later, trans-Saharan trade declined in favour of trade along the Atlantic coast as desertification spread southward, and the town retained….

Both cities were designated UNESCO World Heritage sites —in part for their architectural heritage as well as for their historical and cultural significance—as was the Tomb of Askia in Gao, a pyramid-like structure dating back to the Songhai empire. In , in response…. Excavations have revealed that these towns were large, prosperous, and well constructed.

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