Governments and central banks have taken both regulatory and free market approaches to monetary policy. Some of the tools used to control the money supply include:. In the US, the Federal Reserve is responsible for controlling the money supply, while in the Euro area the respective institution is the European Central Bank.
For many years much of monetary policy was influenced by an economic theory known as monetarism. Monetarism is an economic theory which argues that management of the money supply should be the primary means of regulating economic activity.
The stability of the demand for money prior to the s was a key finding of Milton Friedman and Anna Schwartz  supported by the work of David Laidler ,  and many others. The nature of the demand for money changed during the s owing to technical, institutional, and legal factors [ clarification needed ] and the influence of monetarism has since decreased.
In economics, in many cases, the money can be treated as the capital. The capital markets definition includes the money markets and some other investment markets. Counterfeit money is imitation currency produced without the legal sanction of the state or government. Producing or using counterfeit money is a form of fraud or forgery. Counterfeiting is almost as old as money itself.
A form of counterfeiting is the production of documents by legitimate printers in response to fraudulent instructions. Today some of the finest counterfeit banknotes are called Superdollars because of their high quality and likeness to the real U.
There has been significant counterfeiting of Euro banknotes and coins since the launch of the currency in , but considerably less than for the U. Money laundering is the process in which the proceeds of crime are transformed into ostensibly legitimate money or other assets. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Money disambiguation. Anti-capitalism Capitalist state Consumerism Crisis theory Criticism of capitalism Cronyism Culture of capitalism Exploitation Globalization History History of theory Market economy Periodizations of capitalism Perspectives on capitalism Post-capitalism Speculation Spontaneous order Venture philanthropy.
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The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. Retrieved 18 December Chelsea Green Publishing Archived from the original on 3 April Retrieved 24 February The Little Money Book. What Are the Seven Wonders of the World? First Anchor Books, p.
The First Years , Melville Toward an anthropological theory of value: Retrieved 10 February History of the weksel: Bill of exchange and promissory note. Retrieved 19 September The economic foundations of reconstruction. The Properties of Money". Retrieved 18 July The Nature of Money, Chapter 3: The Various Kinds of Money, Section 3: Money and the Mechanism of Exchange.
Department of Economics, University of Michigan. Mutilated Currency , Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Archived from the original on May 23, Retrieved August 28, Medieval trade in the Mediterranean world: Records of Western civilization. Archived from the original on March 9, The Journal of Economic History. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Retrieved 7 October Monetary History of the United States, — Forecast in capital markets.
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Capitalism portal Economics portal Philosophy portal Politics portal. Glossary Glossary of economics. Business and economics portal. Als um bis v. Menschlicher Einfluss auf die Vegetation wird im heutigen Saarbrücken ab dem Beginn der Jüngeren Steinzeit bis v. Da eine Düngung oder ein Fruchtwechsel der angelegten Felder unterblieb, wurden diese nach Auszehrung der Böden aufgegeben und an anderer gerodeter Stelle eine neue Anbaufläche geschaffen. Auf den aufgelassenen Ackerflächen siedelten sich zunächst eine Wildkrautflora sowie nach und nach Salweide, Aspe, Birke und Hasel an.
Um etwa v. In der Bronzezeit setzte sich der Wanderfeldbau fort, worauf Funde von Bronzebeilen aus der Saarbrücker Tallage hinweisen. Mit dem Ende der Bronzezeit um v. In dieser Phase breitete sich im Saarbrücker Gebiet die Buche weiter aus. Diese Phase dauert bis in unsere Tage an.
Im Saarbrücker Stadtgebiet ist heute aufgrund des massiven Einflusses des Menschen keine natürliche Vegetation mehr zu finden. Die gewonnenen Flächen wurden als Äcker, Wiesen und Weiden genutzt.
Weiterer Raubbau am Wald unterblieb in Saarbrücken weitgehend. Auch Eiche und Bergahorn gedeihen hier gut. In Frostmulden sind Hainbuchen vermehrt anzutreffen. An kleinen Bachgerinnen wächst ein artenreicher Bach-Eschenwald.
Mit der Einführung einer gezielten, forstwirtschaftlichen Planung veränderte auch der Wald um Saarbrücken sein Aussehen. Durch die Industrialisierung seit dem Landwirtschaftliche Nutzung ist heute nur noch in den später eingemeindeten Stadtteilen Ensheim, Eschringen, Bischmisheim, Bübingen, Güdingen und Fechingen möglich. Zahlreiche Ackerflächen wurden zu Bauland. Mit dem Einsatz von chemischen Wuchsstoffen und Bekämpfungsmitteln, der Mechanisierung der Landwirtschaft sowie der Aufgabe der überkommenen bäuerlichen Kleinfelderwirtschaft stieg der Ertrag überproportional an, doch kam es zum Verlust zahlreicher Blütenpflanzen z.
Kornrade, Kamille, Klatschmohn, Kornblume, gelbe Platterbse. Hinsichtlich der Flora der Wintergetreideäcker auf Kalkböden sind seit etwa Pflanzen wie die Strahlendolde, der Acker-Steinsame, die Haarige Platterbse, die Haftdolde oder die Schleifenblume ganz verschwunden.
An beschatteten Winkeln gedeiht Akelei. Auf flachgründigen, trockenen Hängen haben sich Halbtrockenrasen mit reichem Blütenflor und Orchideenarten z. Mit der Ausweisung einer Reihe von nutzungsfreien Naturwaldzellen z. Das Klima der Saarbrücker Region ist weitgehend atlantisch geprägt. Reliefbedingt bestehen aber auch auf engstem Raum Unterschiede. Das tiefliegende Saartal und seine Ränder sind als wärmste Klimazone ausgewiesen.
Aus den langjährigen Messdatenreihen — der meteorologischen Beobachtungsstation St. Arnual m ü. In der Höhenströmung überwiegen die Südwestwinde, dicht gefolgt von Windströmungen aus Nordost. Hier herrschen die Winde aus Südost bis Süd vor. Die durch die Westdrift herangeführten atlantischen Regenwolken geben erst in der Staulage des Saarkohlenwaldes ihre Niederschläge ab, so dass das mittlere Saartal auffallend trocken ist.
Der langjährige Niederschlagsmittelwert — der Station St. Neben den zusammengefassten makroklimatischen Gegebenheiten sind insbesondere die mesoklimatischen und geländeklimatischen Bedingungen wichtig. Bei trockener Hochdrucklage in Herbst und Winter sind ganz- oder mehrtägig andauernde luftaustauscharme Wetterlagen mit Windstille Inversion typisch, wobei eine stabile atmosphärische Schichtung besteht.
Mit zunehmender Höhe liegen über der bodennahen Kaltluft unbewegliche wärmere Luftschichten. Die Folgen sind Fröste, Nebelbildung und die Anreicherung schädlicher Abgase und Schwebstoffe in der unteren Luftzone, wovon Siedlungen in den Talzügen und Beckenlagen besonders betroffen sind.
Häufiger sind die kurzzeitigen Bodeninversionen, wenn bei klaren, schwachwindigen Nächten angestaute Kaltluft zu Spätfrösten sowie starker Tau- und Nebelbildung führt. Bei kräftiger horizontaler Luftströmung advektive Wetterlage aus Nord bis Ost ist ein ausreichender Luftaustausch im Stadtzentrum Saarbrückens gewährleistet.
Durch das Aufsteigen erwärmter Stadtluft bei relativer Windruhe, also bei vertikaler Luftbewegung konvektive Wetterlage entsteht eine Sogströmung in der bodennahen Luftschicht, die kühlere Frischluft aus den weniger aufgeheizten Stadtrandgebieten Saarbrückens heranführt. In jedem Stadtbezirk gibt es einen Bezirksrat und einen Bezirksbürgermeister.
Die Bezirksräte sind zu wichtigen, den Bezirk betreffenden Angelegenheiten zu hören. Die Stadtbezirke sind in Stadtteile und diese wiederum in Distrikte untergliedert. Die Unterteilung in Distrikte dient jedoch lediglich statistischen Zwecken. Im Kernbereich von St. Johann wird eine vorgeschichtliche Siedlung vermutet, die jedoch von heutiger Bebauung überdeckt ist, sodass es nur zu Zufallsfunden kommt.
Jagdbeutereste Auerochsen -Hornzapfen aus der Altsteinzeit wurden in Burbach gefunden. Aus der Jungsteinzeit wurden in St. Johann Steinklingen und Keramik gefunden.
Johann wurden an einem Bestattungsplatz Hals- und Armringe aus der Eisenzeit entdeckt. Auf dem Sonnenberg befand sich eine keltische Höhenburg mit Fürstensitz. Eine römerzeitliche Siedlung auf der hochwasserfreien Terrasse im heutigen St.
Die Quellen des Schwarzenberges wurden seit der Mitte des 2. Hypokaustheizungen und Funde von medizinischen Gerätschaften deuten auf einen gewissen Komfort und ärztliche Versorgung hin. Weitere Brückenübergänge befanden sich oberhalb des heutigen Güdingen und waren bis ins Weitere Funde werden im Bereich des St. Arnualer Marktes und im ehemaligen Stiftsbezirk vermutet.
Nach dem Wiederaufbau fiel die Siedlung vermutlich im Jahr n. Die Ecken des Kastells, das Raum für eine kleine römische Garnison bot, waren durch Rundtürme gesichert. Weitere römische Besiedlungen wurden im gesamten heutigen Stadtgebiet gefunden.
In den Ruinen der römischen Villa im heutigen Stadtteil St. Arnual wurde in merowingischer Zeit Anfang des 7. Diese Kirche war das Zentrum einer Klerikergemeinschaft im damaligen Dorf Merkingen, das später nach dem heiligen Arnual umbenannt wurde. Die ältesten urkundlich erwähnten Orte, die heute zur Landeshauptstadt Saarbrücken gehören, sind Fechingen , Eschringen , Dudweiler und Malstatt Vermutlich entstand um diese Zeit auf dem Saarfelsen, wo heute das Saarbrücker Schloss steht, eine Burg, die sich im königlichen Besitz befand.
Ludwig sollte das Oberkommando über den Kreuzzug erhalten, dem sich nun immer mehr Freiwillige, nicht nur aus Frankreich, sondern auch aus Flandern, England und Norditalien anschlossen. Arnual und der Trierer Bischof Albero von Montreuil organisierten am ersten Sonntag nach Trinitatis für den französischen König und den späteren Grafen der Champagne , Heinrich den Freigiebigen , ein Festbankett und versahen sie mit Reiseproviant.
Auf Befehl Kaiser Friedrich I. Nach dem Jahr wurde die Burganlage neu aufgebaut und eine kleine Siedlung westlich der Burg entstand, in der sich in der Umgebung der Burg Burgmannen, Händler und Schutzsuchende ansiedelten; die Siedlung Alt- Saarbrücken entwickelte sich. Elisabeth gegründet, die karitative Aufgaben und beschränkte Gerichtsbarkeit erhielt und in den nachfolgenden Generationen zu beträchtlichem Ansehen und Einfluss gelangte.
Jahrhundert als Krankenstation gebaute Kapelle gilt als das älteste noch bestehende mittelalterliche Gebäude Saarbrückens. Arnual durch einen gotischen Neubau ersetzt, der heute noch besteht. Um diese Zeit wurde der Saarübergang von St. Arnual ins heutige Stadtzentrum verlegt. Eine Fährverbindung zwischen Saarbrücken und der Nachbarsiedlung St. Johann gewährleistete den Transport von Ufer zu Ufer. Eine Siedlung namens Habschied beim heutigen Südfriedhof wurde im Jahr erstmals urkundlich erwähnt.
Sie fiel allerdings im dritten Viertel des Auch sie fiel nach wüst. Nach wurde an der Stelle der heutigen Schlosskirche mit dem Bau der St. Das Bestehen des Dorfes St. Johann mit seiner Johanneskapelle wurde erstmals im Jahr urkundlich erwähnt. Der heutige Saarbrücker Stadtteil Burbach wurde erstmals um das Jahr urkundlich erwähnt.
Johann in einem Freiheitsbrief das Stadtrecht. Die Siedlung Eschberg wurde im Jahr erstmals erwähnt. Die Saarbrücker Handwerker organisierten sich vor in Zünften. Jahrhunderts zur Wegbereiterin des Prosaromans in frühneuhochdeutscher Sprache.
Sie übersetzte und bearbeitete um vier französische höfische Romane Chanson de geste: Ab dem Jahr führte das Saarbrücker Stadtgericht ein eigenes Siegel. Dieses Siegel ist bis heute ein Bestandteil des Saarbrücker Stadtwappens. Vermutlich auf Veranlassung Kaiser Karls V. Arnualer Kollegiatstift, das im Jahr aufgelöst wurde. Die mittelalterliche Burg wurde in den Jahren — durch den Baumeister Kempter von Vic zu einem Renaissanceschloss umgestaltet. Das heutige Ludwigsgymnasium wurde im Jahr gegründet.
Erster Rektor war Wilhelm Ursinus. Entsprechend der kirchlichen Tradition des Gymnasiums und seiner hauptsächlichen Bestimmung während der Barockzeit, nämlich den Pfarrer- und Beamtennachwuchs des Landes auf das Theologie- oder Jurastudium vorzubereiten, waren die Lehrer und Rektoren des Gymnasiums zugleich evangelische Pfarrer. Im Jahr kam es zur ersten schweren Kriegsheimsuchung in der Grafschaft.
Die gräfliche Familie flüchtete im Jahr nach Metz. Durch den Ausbruch der Pest noch zusätzlich dezimiert, lebten im Jahr nur noch 70 Menschen in der zerstörten Stadt. Nach dem Regierungsantritt Wilhelm Heinrichs im Jahr erlebte die Stadt einen bis dahin nicht gekannten wirtschaftlichen Aufschwung, Steinkohlegruben wurden verstaatlicht, Eisenschmelzen entstanden.
Im Jahr wurde die Ludwigskirche vollendet, einer der bedeutendsten Barockbauten Deutschlands und Wahrzeichen der Stadt Saarbrücken. Im Jahr wurde die Stadt von französischen Revolutionstruppen besetzt, die das Barockschloss plünderten und besetzten.
Vorher war die fürstliche Familie bereits in das rechtsrheinische Gebiet geflüchtet. Bereits im Jahr wurden Saarbrücken und die Nachbarstadt St. Mai geschlossen, laut dessen Bestimmungen Frankreich auf die Staatsgrenzen von beschränkt wurde.
Ausnahmen waren darin allerdings die deutschen Städte Saarbrücken, Saarlouis und Landau , die bei Frankreich verbleiben sollten. Nach der Rückkehr Napoleons und dessen endgültiger Niederlage bei Waterloo am Juni sowie seiner Verbannung auf die Insel St. Dabei hatten mehrere Bittschriften von Kaufleuten aus Saarbrücken und St.
So gehörte Böcking verschiedenen Delegationen an, insbesondere der im Sommer zur Pariser Friedenskonferenz entsandten Deputation. Ein Bergamt wurde eingerichtet, das die staatlichen Kohlengruben in der Umgebung verwaltete. Im Jahr wurde das Landgericht Saarbrücken gegründet. Verschiedene Bürgervereine nahmen an Petitionen und Demonstrationen im Rahmen der Revolution von teil.
Die Bürgerwehr wurde mit Waffen und Uniformen ausgestattet, die Bürgerstöchter nähten eine schwarz-rot-goldene Trikolore und bestickten sie mit dem damaligen deutschen Doppeladler.
Die er-Tradition lebte nach dem Scheitern der Revolution teilweise in der im Jahr gegründeten und aktuell noch bestehenden Schützengesellschaft fort. Laut Satzung von war es Ziel des Vereins, " sich durch dauernde Übung geschult zu erhalten - um, als ein Theil der Volksbewaffnung, in Zeiten der Gefahr dem Vaterlande nützlich zu werden". Mit dem Bau des Bahnhofes in St. Johann in den Jahren — und dem damit erreichten Anschluss an das deutsche und französische Eisenbahnnetz wurde ein weitgreifendes Wirtschaftswachstum eingeleitet.
Johann wurde im Jahr das Recht erteilt, eine eigene Stadtverwaltung zu bilden, womit die jahrhundertealte gemeinsame Verwaltung von Saarbrücken und St. Nach wurde im Grenzgebiet zwischen Malstatt und St. Johann, im Gebiet der heutigen Kongresshalle und des Bürgerparkes , ein Saarhafen angelegt. August Saarbrücken einnehmen konnte. Die Franzosen errichteten auf den Spicherer Höhen auf französischem Gebiet umfangreiche und geschickte Grenzbefestigungen.
Dennoch gingen am 6. August die deutschen Truppen zum Angriff über und konnten nach schweren Verlusten auf deutscher Seite fielen fast dreimal so viele Soldaten wie auf französischer die Höhen erobern. Des Weiteren wurde das Winterbergdenkmal errichtet. In der von Industrieunternehmen geprägten Stadt begann ein stürmisches Bevölkerungswachstum. Im Jahr wurde St. Arnual nach Saarbrücken eingemeindet. Durch Vertrag vom 5. Michael Fox, 48, a retired psychiatric nurse, from Bournemouth, was convicted of various sex attacks on vulnerable women but was never charged with killing Jo.
He was jailed for life. In she was jailed for 5 years for manslaughter. Brothers Tony and Patrick Brindle were acquitted of his murder after a trial at the Old Bailey in The Brindles were members of an infamous south London family while Abdullah had links with the rival Arifs.
Tony McKie survived the shooting. Cedil Jackson, 36, her builder husband was jailed for life min 18 years in It was a bungled robbery. Her husband Richard Klinkhammer, a Dutch crime writer, aged 52, was convicted and jailed for 6 years. Benjamin Warren, 49, director of an international language centre — stabbed in Berkeley Square, central London. Seamus Reed, 32, a vagrant, was jailed for life in March His girlfriend Janet Gardner , 52, was convicted at Winchester Crown Court in of manslaughter on the grounds of provocation and jailed for 5 years.
She was a battered wife. December 24 Christmas Eve — Patrick Quinn, 56, Irish labourer from Hammersmith, was killed in a cell in Hammersmith police station after being locked up with another drunk, businessman Malcolm Kennedy, Kennedy was jailed for life in Sep but continued to protest his innocence.
He claimed Quinn was killed by police officers. He obtained a retrial and was jailed for manslaughter and sentenced to 9 years. He was freed in December 21 — shipping clerk Geraldine Palk, 26, raped and stabbed 81 times in Fairwater, Cardiff. December 21 — taxi driver Steven Johnson, 25, from Hanley, Stoke, had his throat slashed and was left for dead at Mow Cop, Staffordshire.
Robbed of 50 pounds. Case reopened in December 1 — Patrick Hurling, 50, bludgeoned and strangled at his home in Hertford. Nov — Lazaro Figueroa, 3, was beaten and tortured to death in Miami. His mother Ana Maria Cardona, a cocaine addict, was jailed for life in Her conviction was overturned in but she was convicted at a retrial in But in Cardona, by now 54, was granted a new trial.
The boy, badly beaten and weighing just 18 pounds, was discovered dead in the bushes of a Miami Beach bayfront home. The key prosecution witness was her lover, Olivia Gonzalez Mendoza. Her husband, Orette Forrest, was jailed for life in October 3 — Mohinder Cheema, was shot dead at his off license in Hounslow. Suspicion originally fell on the Tooti Nungs extortion gang but it later emerged that his wife Julie Cheema, 44, had hired a hitman, Robert Naughton, 20, to kill him so she could be with her lover, Neil Marklew, She was jailed for life in September — Nicola Porter, 28, and her lover Alan Ward, 44 — she was stabbed at her home in Edgware while he was shot at his home in Hendon.
Jealous husband Stewart Porter, 33, was convicted of manslaughter and jailed for 9 years in Nov The motivation was apparently racial friction between black and Vietnamese pupils.
He was jailed for 12 years for manslaughter in Killing remains unsolved but is thought to have been carried out by the serial killer nicknamed the Midlands Ripper, who targeted prostitutes. September 4 — Andrew Pilch, 34, killed in Elsing, Norfolk. He was jailed for life in March but hanged himself shortly afterwards. Warren Slaney, 23, was jailed for life for the murders but has always protested his innocence.
On the same day Frank Harris, from Birmingham, was stabbed at the same festival in Leeds. Tony Salmon, a DJ from Birmingham, was acquitted of killing him. In he was sentenced to death and he was executed in August 23 — Paul Stevens, 33, a gay man, beaten to death and dumped in the Grand Union Canal in Hayes in what may have been a homophobic attack.
Their bodies were dumped in a car left on the street. The killer was Michael Shorey, a former boyfriend of Morrison. August — Mandy Rothwell, 17, pregnant, killed by boyfriend Anthony Smith, He was jailed for life but later freed on a technicality.
Hitman Jimmy Moody is believed to have been responsible. July — Beverley McGowan vanished from her home in Florida. Her decapitated body was later found in Pompano Beach.
Her killer, Elaine Parent — who was British, killed her so she could steal her identity. She was known as the Chameleon Killer. She had replied to an advert for a room-mate. Parent went on the run and shot herself in after being cornered by police. It was discovered in June His flatmate Andrew Aitken, 31, who was also a musician, was jailed for life in Sep after returning from Australia.
He had told police about the body. Nobody even realised McDonagh was dead. Contract killer Jimmy Moody is believed to have been responsible. May — Joanna Parrish, 20, a British language student from Gloucestershire, strangled with a cord and left in the river Yonne in Auxerre, France. Case remains unsolved but there is a suggestion she was killed by French serial killer Michel Fourniret. Michael Brady, 25, was jailed for 7 years for her manslaughter. April 27 — Tenisha Hardy, 15, shot while walking a street in San Francisco.
Various names have been suggested for the killer, including hitmen Roy Adkins himself killed in Sep in Amsterdam and Danny Roff also killed. April — Susan Zack, 31, a pharmacist from Essex, and her Austrian boyfriend Hartwig Bayerl, 44, went missing from their yacht off the coast of Australia.
Another Austrian, Manfred Weissensteiner, who was found on the yacht, was later jailed for life. But there have been reports of Bayerl being seen alive since. His target had been his girlfriend, hat check girl Lydia Feliciano, but she ironically survived.
Gonzalez was jailed for 25 years to life in August The murder is linked to some blue diamonds which were stolen from a Saudi prince by a Thai cleaner in Her husband John Perry, 52, was jailed for life for her murder in Nov Jan 22 — Surinder Gill, an insurance broker, was hijacked as she drove in Lambeth, south London. He was stabbed 39 times and dumped in Hounslow, west London. He is believed to have been killed by the Holy Smokes gang. Friend of E End cocaine smuggler.
Professional killer Jimmy Moody is believed to have been responsible. They were jailed for 30 years. But both were freed in as part of a general amnesty at the end of the war, which was between the army and the Farabundo Marti Liberation Front.
The trial heard that the priests had been planning peace talks and the soldiers did not want any compromise with the communist FMLN. Nov — Jade Uncles, 5 months old, killed at home in Chippenham, Wiltshire. Her mother Michelle Uncles, 24, moved to Rochester, Kent and confessed six years later. But she was acquitted at Bristol CC in April Oct 31 — Annabella Symington, 77, strangled at her home in Stranmills, Belfast. Inspector Kenneth McConnell, 58, policeman from Carrickfergus, was jailed for life minimum 18 years in May Oct 18 — Charles Chia, 8, and his sister Jennifer Chia, 6, were abducted after getting off a school bus at the Timber Hills apartment complex in Reno, Nevada where they lived.
They were last seen walking back towards their home. Their disappearance did not make major headline news because it was eclipsed by a massive earthquake in San Francisco which killed 63 people.
Their skeletal remains were found in a shallow grave on July 25, in Plumas County, California. He claimed to be a kidnapper but it was a hoax. He was jailed for 10 years. The case remains unsolved. Aug 18 — Luis Carlos Galan, a journalist and Liberal presidential candidate, 45, was assassinated at a political rally in Soacha, Colombia.
Ten other people were injured. General Miguel Maza Marquez, a retired police general, went on trial in for his role in the killing. Escobar feared Galan would introduce an extradition law with the US. Galan was the favourite to win the election and was running on an anti-corruption ticket. She was the girlfriend of notorious Vietnamese gang leader Dung Ngoc Nguyen.
She had planned to break up with him the night she was killed and was planning to tell the police all about his crimes. March 22 — Ann Harrison, 15, was abducted on her driveway in Kansas City, Missouri while waiting for a school bus.
She was raped and stabbed to death by two men in a stolen car. Her body was found in the trunk of the abandoned car three days later.
Michael Taylor and Roderick Nunley were both sentenced to death. Taylor was executed in and Nunley in They had both been high on cocaine at the time of the murder.
Jan 4 — Junko Furuta, 17, high school student, was abducted, raped, tortured over 44 days and eventually murdered in Misato, near Tokyo, Japan. She was abducted in Nov and her body was found in a concrete-filled 55 gallon drum in March In Miyano — whose family had links with the Yakuza — was jailed for 17 years. He appealed but was then given an extra three years in jail.
The other three were each sentenced to between three and nine years in jail. Several books and films have been made about the case, the details of which are horrific.
In he hit the headlines when he was cleared for euthanasia while in prison. But the euthanasia plan was turned down. He remains alive in prison. Dec 23 — Alice Rowley, 87, and her sister Edna, 77, were killed at their home at 9 8 Greswolde Road, a former corner shop building in Sparkhill, Birmingham.
Alice had been strangled in the living room. Edna had been smothered, was discovered in her bedroom. The killer stole two boxes of chocolates, a bottle of Tia Maria and a radio cassette player. Nov 1 — Ronda Morrison, 18, a clerk, was bludgeoned, strangled and shot at a dry cleaners in Monroeville, Alabama.
Several months later police arrested Ralph Myers, 30, a career criminal, on suspicion of murdering a woman in nearby Escambia County. During his interrogation, police said that they had witnesses who would testify that he had committed the Morrison murder along with Walter McMillian, a year old black man who was notorious in the community because he had a white girlfriend.
Eventually Myers gave a taped confession in which he said that he drove McMillian to the scene of the crime and McMillian went into the building alone.
McMillian was convicted and sentenced to death but his conviction was quashed in and he was freed. McMillian died in Her beheaded body was found later. H er dismembered limbs, torso and head were found in plastic bags near Copenhagen harbour. Their bodies were found on Oct 1 in a maize field in Dinan, Brittany, France. They were both teachers from Norfolk who were on a month-long cycling holiday. The bodies were found beneath 6ft maize stalks, naked from the waist up, tied back to back and gagged.
The prime suspect was never convicted but who did later go to prison for a triple attempted murder in Belgium. Police Captain Pascal Huche believed the couple were murdered by a man who wanted to clear his own father who, in was suspected of killing the Belgian teachers, Marie-Christine and Andre Van Herpen , shot in the back of the head five miles away. In it was suggested their killer could also be responsible for the murder of the al-Hilli family in the French Alps.
Nov 29 — Gerard Hoarau, 34, an exiled politician from the Seychelles, was shot dead with a Sterling sub-machine gun on the doorstep of his home in Greencourt Avenue, Edgware, north London.
His assassination is believed to have been ordered by the President of the Seychelles, Albert Rene. Both had died of blunt force trauma to the head, yet police failed to identify the killer or the names of either victim. In , a detective reopened the cold case, surveying the wooded crime scene. Not far away, another barrel was found with the bodies of two more young girls. DNA testing concluded that the woman from was related to at least two of the three children.
Bizarrely, all four victims remain unknown to this day. He was charged with two counts of murder and one of aggravated sexual assault. Jones has a lengthy criminal record, which included domestic violence and a six year jail term for raping and kidnapping a year-old woman. June 20 — Silke Garben, 10, was sexually assaulted and dumped in a stream near Detmold, Germany. She had been on her way to the dentist. British serial killer Robert Black is known to have been in Germany that year.
Neil Anderson, 50, antique restorer, beaten to death and set on fire in his office in Bermondsey, SE London. Roger Pellicci, 40, an odd job man and friend, was convicted of manslaughter and jailed for 3 and a half years. In they were convicted of murder and jailed for life. His trial was a jumble of omissions and inconsistencies.
He initially confessed but has since retracted it and claimed she carried out the killings alone. Dec 9 — Peter Miller, 24, was stabbed to death in the kitchen of the family home in Great Yarmouth. His brother Tony, a year-old plumber from Gorleston, was originally arrested over the death but released soon afterwards.
Investigations then led to a number of other arrests, but no-one was ever charged. In Norfolk Police admitted it had destroyed or returned items in , limiting the chances of a new cold case review based on forensic evidence. Tony Miller is furious and has complained. Dec 8 — Lisa Hession, 14, was sexually assaulted and strangled as she walked home from a party in Leigh, Greater Manchester.
Aug 28 — Edna Harvey, 87, strangled and her bed set on fire at her home in Ipswich. Little is known about her movements in the days before her death and it is thought it was a burglary which went wrong. Hells Angels was written on a wall in blood.
David Richards, 53, a Hells Angel, was jailed for life. He absconded from Sudbury open prison in Derbyshire in and went to live in Wolverhampton. He was finally arrested in and jailed for two and a half years for escaping lawful custody. Jan 12 — Gary Grant, 7, was bludgeoned to death with a metal pipe two blocks from his home in Atlantic City, New Jersey.
His father Gary, a police officer , was working a night shift at the time. In he released a chilling audiotape which he believed could yield clues into who kidnapped and murdered his son. Mr Grant, by then 66, said that in March someone called the police and said: August — Edna Harvey, 87, was strangled and her body set on fire at her home in Finchley Road, Ipswich.
July 23 — Diane Jones, 35, vanished from her home in Coggeshall, Essex. She was not reported missing until nine days later. Her body was found in a copse next to the A at Martlesham, Suffolk.
She was two months pregnant. Her husband Robert was a doctor. He said he last saw at the front gate of their house, when she got out of the car to let him park it when they came back from the local pub, The Woolpack, where they were seen arguing.
May 10 — Nancy Argentino, 23, died of brain injuries after being struck against a hard object. J ames Warnock, 56, a Canadian who lived in Camden, north London, was charged with the murder in Feb and awaits trial.
It was known as the Milwaukee Avenue massacre. Rogelio Medina, who had been wounded in the ambush, fled Chicago after the shootings. He was found slain in Mexico a month later. Rogelio Arroyo, 33, Isauro Sanchez, 31, Joaquin Varela 31, and Ignacio Varela, 50, were sentenced to death for murder but in their sentences were commuted to life by the governor, James Thompson. The trial was told there was a feud between the Sanchez and Varela families, who both came from Guerrero, Mexico.
None of the defendants spoke English. Another survivor of the massacre, Leoncio Quezada, testified that the Varela group trapped the Sanchez family on the stairwell, pulled handguns and fired a barrage of at least 26 bullets.
Nearby was the body of a Dutch tugboat captain, Johannes Otten, whose body was also impaled on a spiked fence. Some of her injuries however, where not consistent with this hypothesis, as her father Ron Smith, a former police officer, found out from a second post-mortem he had to change UK law to get. He insisted t he British police, the Saudi police and the staff at the British embassy lied and misdirected him to cover something up.
Her body was finally cremated and scattered on Ilkley Moor in her native Yorkshire in Her father died in Her death remains a mystery. June 29 — Bob Crane, an actor and director who was best known for his role as Robert E. The police could find no motive for the crime, there were no witnesses and no leads. Therefore, his death remains unsolved. His mother Margaret Livesey, 43, was jailed for life for murder after she confessed to the crime.
She recanted the confession a few days later. She was released from prison in and died of throat cancer in , still maintaining her innocence. October 10 — Carol Wilkinson, 20, a bakery worker, was killed as she walked to work in the Ravenscliffe area of Bradford. Anthony Steel, a council-employed gardener thought to have worked nearby, was arrested 18 months later over her murder. He was jailed for life and spent 20 years in jail protesting his innocence. Psychological evidence obtained while he was in prison showed that he was of low IQ, had learning difficulties and was easily led and suggestible.
He was released but remained in poor health and died, of a heart attack, aged 52, in It has since been suggested the real killer may have been Peter Sutcliffe, the Yorkshire Ripper. June18 — Gurdip Singh Chaggar, 16, was murdered in Southall by a gang of white racists. Nobody was convicted of his murder. She was the ex-wife of Righteous Brothers singer Bill Medley. In DNA was used to identify the killer.
He was Kenneth Troyer, who was killed by police in She had long, reddish-brown hair, and seven expensive gold crowns. She was between 25 and 35, possibly older. She weighed to pounds, and stood 5 feet 6 to 5 feet 8 inches. She had been dead for up to two weeks.
October — Bronwynne Richardson, 17, a beauty queen, was raped and murdered after being abducted outside a church in Albury, New South Wales, close to the Victoria border. In Colin Newey, 62, was charged with murder but the charges were dropped in Police believe Amala may have known her attacker as there was no sign of forced entry to her flat in Randolph Avenue.
Fresh appeal made in June 7 — Derby Day — the body of Judith Roberts, 14, was discovered under a pile of hedge clippings and plastic fertiliser bags in a field near Tamworth, Staffordshire. She had left her home in Wiggington to ride her green bicycle along Comberford Lane, Tamworth. She was dragged from her cycle, battered to death and her body partly concealed.
At the height of the inquiry, more than detectives were looking for the murderer of the shy teenager. They took more than 15, sets of fingerprints and more than 11, statements. Nearly 11, house-to-house inquiries were made and road checks were set up.
A total of 4, separate pieces of information were acted on. Four months later Andrew Evans , a depressed asthmatic young soldier, confessed to her killing. He confessed after being disturbed by a dream in which he believed he saw the face of the murdered girl and said he wanted to see a photograph of her.
He was jailed for life for murder in In the campaigning organisation Justice took up his cause. He was eventually freed by the Court of Appeal three years later.
Oct 12 — Barbara Mayo, 24, a trainee teacher from London, vanished while hitch-hiking up the M1. Six days later her body was discovered in woodland near Ault Hucknall, Derbyshire. She had been bludgeoned over the back of the head and garotted. DNA evidence had been left at the scene. October — Paul Booth, 19 months old, died at his home in — Stockton-on-Tees when his father swung him around and smashed his head against a fireplace.
He was also convicted of child cruelty. Her body was found in woods at Mere, near Knutsford, Cheshire. She had been sexually assaulted and strangled.
There has been speculation linking her to serial killers Peter Tobin and Peter Sutcliffe. Jan 6 — Bernard Oliver, 17, vanished from home in Muswell Hill, north London, where he lived with his father and five siblings.
His dissected body was found in two suitcases in a field in Tattingstone, Suffolk on 16 January. April — Fred Craven, a bookmaker, was bludgeoned from behind with a hammer in Bingley, West Yorkshire.
There have been suggestions the killer could have been Peter Sutcliffe, later known as The Yorkshire Ripper. September 12 — Sidney Leeson, 75, was bludgeoned to death at his home in Leicester city centre after reading the local paper. Sep 8 — George Wilson, 41, a former miner, was stabbed to death outside his pub, the Fox and Grapes in Sneinton, Nottingham.
He was found by his wife Betty. The killing became known as the Pretty Windows murder because of the attractive glasswork at the pub and triggered one of the biggest manhunts carried out by Nottinghamshire Police. Oct 28 — Mary Horton Vail, drowned in Mississippi. Her husband Felix Vail, by then 74, was charged in and awaits trial on Nov 17, He is also suspected of killing his common-law wife, Sharon Hensley, who disappeared in ; and his wife Annette Vail, missing since Dec — Maureen Dutton, 27, a mother of two, was stabbed to death in the afternoon in the front room of her home in Knotty Ash, Liverpool.
Her toddler son David and baby boy Andrew were the only witnesses. One of the most bizarre theories detectives considered, for a short while, was that Mrs Dutton was killed by a Polynesian cult as a sacrifice to their God Tiki. In a twist, a year-old male nurse living in Upper Parliament Street was arrested and charged with theft of drugs and equipment from three Liverpool hospitals in He was also said to have masqueraded as a doctor and had a reversed swastika tattoo on his arm — the identification mark of a Tiki-worshipper.
Robert Dickson, another lighthouse keeper, was sentenced to death but this was commuted and he was sentenced to life in prison. But he died two years later, of a drug overdose. The gunman Ove Conry Andersson, 17, fled on the road to Ytterby. But the following morning he handed himself and confessed.
Andersson was known in Kungälv for his interest in cowboy movies and told the police he wanted to be like heroes in the movies. Andersson was sentenced to psychiatric treatment in a secure hospital.
He was later released and committed suicide on 12 August It was one of the first known shootings in a school in Europe. It usually took her 15 minutes. She was seen walking towards the shop and looking in the window but did not enter. Later she spoke to a local cobbler but she later vanished.
Her body was found four days later in a field 18 miles away at Polstead, Suffolk. She had been strangled with a school scarf. She never returned home. John Feit, who was the priest at Sacred Heart, was arrested in when, aged 83, he lived in Scottsdale, Arizona. He faces a murder trial. Dec 19 — Christine Walker, 24, was raped and shot when she arrived home in Sarasota, Florida.
Her husband Cliff, 25, was then shot, as were their son Jimmie, 3, and Debbie, who was not yet 2. She was drowned in a bathtub. A serial killer named Emmett Monroe Spencer subsequently confessed to the murders but his confession was discredited.
The case remains unsolved although there is another theory of a connection to the unsolved Zodiac killings in California. Oct 31 — William Roy Prather, 15, a black boy, was shot in the face by a group of white teenagers in Corinth, Mississippi. Eight white teens were charged with murder, but only one was convicted. Jerry Darnell Glidewell, then 16, pleaded guilty to manslaughter in January and served less than a year in state prison.
May 17 — Kelso Cochrane , 32, a black carpenter, was stabbed to death with a stiletto knife by a white youth in Notting Hill, west London, against a backdrop of simmering racial tension. There were also suspicions that the police feared a violent backlash if a white man were to be tried and hanged for murdering a black man less than a year after the Notting Hill race riots. She died shortly afterwards. Examinations revealed she had been stabbed five times; one wound was straight through her heart.
Her murder remains unsolved. A group of boys were playing in the woods at Hagley near Stourbridge, West Midlands when they discovered a skull. It belonged to a woman who had apparently been dead for some time, her body stuffed in the hollow trunk of a witch elm tree. A few months later anonymous graffiti popped up on brick walls throughout the region.
The scrawled messages all asked the same question: March 31 — Andreas Gruber, 63, a farmer, his wife Cäzilia, 72, their widowed daughter Viktoria Gabriel, 35, her children, Cäzilia, 7, and Josef, 2, and the maid, Maria Baumgartner, 44, were all hacked to death with a mattock, a type of farming tool at a farm at Hinterkaifeck, near Ingolstadt, Bavaria, Germany. The murders remain unsolved to this day.
A few days prior to the crime, farmer Andreas Gruber told neighbors about discovering footprints in the snow leading from the edge of the forest to the farm, but none leading back. He also spoke about hearing footsteps in the attic and finding an unfamiliar newspaper on the farm. Furthermore, the house keys went missing several days before the murders.
None of this was reported to the police prior to the attack. Six months earlier, the previous maid had left the farm, claiming that it was haunted; the new maid, Maria Baumgartner, arrived on the farm on the day of the attack and was killed hours later. Josef was reportedly the product of an incestuous relationship between Viktoria and her father. He had been hit over the head with a blunt instrument and had been in the pond for months.
Five weeks earlier a couple approached a local businessman near the pond. After the unidentified boy was buried a veiled woman frequently placed flowers on the grave. In , a medical examiner proposed a connection between the unidentified murder victim and the mysterious case of Homer Lemay, who disappeared around the same time the authorities discovered the body in the Waukesha pond. I can not see why you can not fine the murder that happen in chicago ill nov the 4th in the city hall time 6: Kennedy was in Chicago that night he was running for President the reason i no it happen is because i did time for the crime i still say i did not do that crime my name Glenn Williams cell You are commenting using your WordPress.
You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. All are presumed innocent until proven guilty by a court of law. Please email me at totalcrime70 gmail. Stefan Williams and Onyebuchuku Anyado were also jailed for life.
Their convictions were later quashed in and the retrial abandoned after it was decided that an expert witness on CCTV images was not reliable. Kevin Dennis was one of several people along with Barry George who were told in they could not have compensation for wrongful conviction.
Graeme Donaldson, 27, from Kirkintilloch, was jailed for life in Dec 28 — Flamur Daci, 28, an Albanian immigrant from Southend, was attacked at Tesco in Gravesend, Kent, in a brawl which continued in the nearby railway station. He died in hospital on Dec They all fled abroad possibly to Italy. An inquest in July recorded a verdict of unlawful killing. Dec 26 — Simon Brown, 27, from Fallowfield, was shot in the head at 5. It is thought he was killed by the Gooch gang.
Safdar Hussein, 20, from Wanstead, was jailed for life for murder in Oct Surfraz Ghaffur, 18, from Ilford, was jailed for 2 years for violent disorder. Tariq Bakhari, 21, was also jailed for 2 years. A 17 year old was jailed for 18 months.
The trial was told Rayatt was from a rival drugs gang and had broken the jaw of Akhtar Hussain in a previous altercation. Karlton Mills survived after being taken to hospital by taxi. James Goodman, 22, and Shaney Heskey, 28, were both jailed for life in October Dec 25 — Nicola Karen, 18, stabbed at a house in Droylsden, Manchester.
Her boyfriend Graham Grogan, 21, was jailed for life in Oct The trial at Minshull Street Crown Court heard he smashed her head into a wardrobe, then stabbed her in the heart, back and lungs. Nana Kwaku Oppong, 29, was acquitted in March Dec 20 — Lynn Walton, 42, was stabbed at her flat in Hinchcliffe, Peterborough.
Her boyfriend Ambrose Moore, 39, was jailed for 5 years for manslaughter. Charges were dropped against his brother Thomas Moore, The trial heard Ambrose stabbed her during a drunken row and then left, not realising she would bleed to death. Dec 18 — Ian Clark, 35, a drug addict, and Patricia Price, 44, a lesbian junkie, were shot in the head in separate rooms of a house in West Hill, Bridlington, East Yorkshire.
James Chopswood Morrison, 40, from Rochdale, was jailed for life 21 years in June Gary Rose, 18, was acquitted. Morrison was also convicted of the attempted murder of Trevor Shine, 40, the director of a market research company, who survived a shooting in Brookwood, near Woking, in Jan Her mother Lisa Messer, 30, and father Stuart, 33, were never charged.