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Bad mit Badewanne 2. Fenster im Bad Schwimmbad im Haus 2. Spielplatz im Garten Sauna im Garten 4. Parkplatz auf dem Grundstück Hundenäpfe Futter und Wasser Hunde dürfen in den Garten Hundebademöglichkeit in der Nähe Leckereien für den Hund 6. Zaunhöhe bis 1,00m In , the district administrator of Quedlinburg placed the Teufelsmauer , "a rock outcrop famous as an object of folklore and as a rare natural curiosity" , near Thale under protection, because the inhabitants of neighbouring districts were using the rocks as a quarry.
This protection order survived in spite of all protests from the local villages. Thus, a valuable natural monument was saved from destruction, and it is of note that the authorities felt that the 'romantic' reasons for its preservation were entirely justified.
Albert Peter laid out the Brocken Garden in This was the first Alpine flower garden to be established on German soil. And, in terms of its scientific concept and scope, the Brocken Garden was the first of its type worldwide. The Brocken Railway began service in , against the already strong concerns of conservationists. For example, the botanist, Bley, wanted to prevent trains from climbing the Brocken, because it he felt it would threaten the Brocken's flora. In , Hermann Löns uttered his famous cry "More Protection for the Brocken" Mehr Schutz für den Brocken in light of the mass tourism that was beginning to affect the Brocken.
By , he effectively pressed for the establishment of a Harz national park, without calling it such, in Der Harzer Heimatspark Verlag E. The Harz played a special role in the life of the famous regional poet, naturalist and local patriot, undoubtedly not least because his second wife, Lisa Hausmann, came from Barbis in the South Harz.
Around , the capercaillie population in the Harz died out. The Wernigerode rector, W. Voigt, wrote, in , in his famous Brockenbuch: In America it has long become the business of the people, to create a sacrosanct haven for the native flora and fauna of the regions in national parks. North and South Germany have their heath and alpine parks. May the joint efforts of the royal authorities, the local police, the Wernigerode Nature Conservation Society and individual friends of the Brocken also succeed now in central Germany, through caring nurture across the board, in establishing and preserving the Brocken too, as a small, but unique, nature reserve for the German people.
In the s, national park planning in Germany became specific again. The Second World War prevented these national park plans from being taken forward; nevertheless, in , an Upper Harz Nature Reserve Naturschutzgebietes Oberharz was designated.
During the Nazi era , the Harz area became an important production site for the armaments industry. Many factories, important to the war effort, were located there and, as the war neared its conclusion, they were increasingly staffed with slave labour. As a result, the Harz was the location of several hundred forced labour camps and KZs at that time. Its prisoners were used by the SS mainly in the tunnel excavation and nearby underground stations of the Mittelwerk Ltd.
The slave labourers at the Dora camp were subjected to brutal conditions, which led to more than 20, deaths. In the last weeks of the war , the so-called Harz Fortress Harzfestung is worth mentioning.
Its headquarters was at Blankenburg. Amongst the formations mobilised were divisions belonging to the 11th Army , divisions of the Waffen SS and the Volkssturm. When the United States First Army reached Nordhausen in the southern Harz, and went to advance northwards, it met with resistance, especially in the hills around the towns of Ilfeld and Ellrich.
Several units of Volkssturm troops fought on against the Americans during May. At the time, Sheeran was serving in the 45th U. According to Sheeran, his unit was climbing the Harz when they came upon a mule train carrying supplies to German positions on the hillside.
The Americans handed shovels to their prisoners, forced them to dig their own graves, then shot and buried them. Wernher von Braun , one of the leading figures in the development of rocket technology in Germany during the Second World War and, subsequently, in the United States, reportedly ordered blueprints of his work to be hidden in an abandoned mine shaft in the Harz range. Until , the Inner German Border ran through the western third of the Harz.
The Brocken plateau and other peaks near the border were part of a large military out-of-bounds area, which demonstrating walkers first entered on 3 December Tourism on the Brocken has since then become very intense — about 1. The former out-of-bounds area today has many habitats worth protecting and, as a result, it is being turned into a green belt. The mining industry in the Harz has its origins about 3, years ago during the Bronze Age. The seven Upper Harz mining towns - Clausthal , Zellerfeld , Bad Grund , Sankt Andreasberg , Lautenthal , Altenau and Wildemann - and around 30 other villages within and on the edge of the Harz can thank the Upper Harz mining and smelting industries for their boom.
The former imperial town of Goslar , too, whose splendour depended on the ore treasures of the Rammelsberg , mined argentiferous lead ore for centuries. Mining heavily dominated the economic life of the Harz as well as its scenery. Miners created the famous engineering system for the management of water in the Upper Harz, the Upper Harz Water Regale , of which 70 kilometres of ditch and 68 'ponds' with a volume of 8 million cubic metres are still used today. Without using their considerable hydropower output, silver mining in the Harz would never have been able to attain its major economic significance.
The early beginnings of this industry were first mentioned in , and it was considered in its heyday, at the end of the 15th century, as the most important in Europe. In the North Thuringian mining area, there were numerous potash mines and, in the vicinity of Röblingen, geological waxes were extracted by a mining concern. Having formerly had 1, workers, the mine employed just 14 people towards the end, using the most modern technology to extract barite.
With the closure of this facility, mining operations that had begun in the Middle Ages and had continued unbroken since the 16th century, extracting silver , lead and zinc , came to an end. Bearing witness to the industry are cultural monuments as well as the negative consequences of mining for the environment such as e.
The booming mining industry of bygone centuries in the Harz region — especially for silver , iron , copper , lead and zinc — has declined markedly. However, the heavy metal residues in the soils of the Upper Harz, which in some cases are significant, represent a serious environmental hazard today. Copper workings are still important today in the area of Mansfeld.
In Bad Lauterberg, barite - used today primarily for the manufacture of paint and in sound insulation - was extracted until July at the Wolkenhügel Pit, the last mine in the entire Harz. Another important employer is the Clausthal University of Technology. In addition to the classical disciplines of mining and metallurgy, many engineering and science subjects, as well as business studies courses, are taught and researched. The extensive woods of the Harz mean that forestry plays an important economic role, as do the associated wood-working industries.
In the first millennium AD, hardwood trees mainly common beech were predominant on the higher ground - typical of a natural highland forest. Hence one spoke of going in die Harten "into the hardwood forest" , a term which gave the Harz its name. Today, however, the commercially managed areas are mainly monocultures of Norway spruce. A cause of this development was the mining history in the Harz region, with its high demand for wood and the consequent overuse and devastation of the stands of forest.
In addition, there were the climatic changes of the so-called Little Ice Age. The reforestation with relatively easily managed and undemanding spruce trees since the middle of the 18th century was mainly due to the proposals of the Senior Forester and Master Hunter, Johann Georg von Langen.
Tourism is very important to the Harz, although the prevalence of cheap air travel has led to a decline in recent years. There are many spa towns , and almost every village in the Harz and Harz Foreland caters to tourists. Well-known destinations are the Harz National Park and the Brocken , as well as the historic towns on the edge of the Harz.
Concepts like the Western town, Pullman City Harz, or the rock operas on the Brocken are intended to also be particularly attractive to foreign tourists. Although winter sport in the Harz does not have the significance of other mountain areas, such as the Thuringian Forest , Ore Mountains , Black Forest or even the Alps , there are plenty of winter sport facilities.
Due to the high altitude and length of their runs, Nordic skiing is very popular. International winter sport competitions take place on the Wurmberg ski jump near Braunlage and the biathlon facility at Sonnenberg. Also worth mentioning are the many cross-country skiing runs Loipen in the Harz. Their quality and features are ensured by the land owners, particularly in the Harz National Park, where snow is still relatively guaranteed during the winter months, and also by individual communities and societies.
The Förderverein Loipenverbund Harz , for example, is well known in this regard. It was founded in on the initiative of the Harz National Park, Harz winter sport parishes, the cable car and lift operators, hotels and transport companies, and has the aim of promoting ski tourism in the Harz and looking after the interests of nature conservation. The mountain rescue service on the cross-country routes, the toboggan slopes, footpaths, alpine ski pistes and rough terrain is provided by the Bergwacht Harz.
In summer, the main activity in the Harz, by far, is walking. In recent years Nordic walking has become increasingly popular. On several reservoirs in the Harz , a variety of water sports is permitted and, on a number of rivers originating in the Harz, there are opportunities for canoeing and other sports on white water sections. International canoe and kayak competitions take place on the Oker below the Oker Dam. The white water on this stretch of river is partly a result of the raised levels of discharge from the Oker Reservoir and so is largely independent of the weather.
Several hills provide a base for airborne activities, such as gliding and hang-gliding , notably the Rammelsberg near Goslar. The Harz offers a range of climbing areas like, the Oker valley, with its rock outcrops Klippen ; the Adlerklippen being especially popular.
The Harz has also developed in recent years into a popular mountain bike region, with 62 signed mountain bike routes and four bike parks with lift facilities in Braunlage, Hahnenklee, Schulenberg and Thale. The bike parks offer freeride , downhill and fourcross routes. Both the signed cycle paths and the bike parks are suitable for every level of cyclist.
Roads in the Harz are used by racing bikes and touring bikes , despite their sometimes heavy use by lorries, because in the whole of North Germany there is no other region with such long, and in places very steep, descents and ascents. In addition, there are a large number of railway connections on the edge of the Harz which allow bicycles to be taken on trains. The Harz Mountain Rescue Bergwacht Harz service also operates in summer, rescuing people involved in accidents on difficult terrain.
The mountains of the Harz were used in former times for long walks e. An extensive network of footpaths is maintained today, especially by the Harz Club. In addition, there are several long distance paths the Harz Witches' Trail , Kaiser Way , Karst Trail and Selke Valley Trail , as well as a trans-regional project, the Harzer Wandernadel , with checkpoints and a range of walking badges that may be earned for various levels of achievement.
The Harz is also home to Germany's first naturist hiking trail, the Harzer Naturistenstieg. The Harz Run German: Harzquerung is a fun run and walking event in the Harz mountains of Germany organised by the Wernigerode Skiing Club Skiklub Wernigerode which takes place on the last Saturday of April.
The main dialects of the Harz region are Eastphalian and Thuringian. Unlike the Lower Saxon, Eastphalian and Thuringian dialects of the surrounding region, this was an Ore Mountain dialect from Saxony and Bohemia, that went back to the settlement of mining folk from that area in the 16th century.
The Upper Harz dialect was used only in a few places. Today the dialect is heard only rarely in the Upper Harz in everyday life and it is mainly members of the older generations that still use it, so occasional articles in the local papers are printed in "Upper Harz" which helps to preserve it.
Geomorphological processes have led to the formation of caves in the gypsum , dolomite and limestone layers of the Harz. Because the older formations contained many mineral deposits , they were explored very early on by the mining industry.
The mines have often been turned into show mines. For example, the Samson Pit was for a long time the deepest mine in the world.
The Roter Bär Pit in St. Andreasberg also served as a training mine until the 20th century and is today, preserved true to the original, as a visitor mine. The medieval abbeys of Drübeck , Ilsenburg , Michaelstein , Quedlinburg and Walkenried are found mainly on the edge of the Harz.
In Hahnenklee there is a wooden stave church , the Gustav Adolf Stave Church which was consecrated in The high elevation of many places in the Harz has been used to advantage to erect transmission or observation towers.
In historical times, high ridges and spurs were used as sites for fortified castles Burgen. In addition to these defensive structures, palatial castles Schlösser were also built, such as Herzberg Castle , Blankenburg Castle , Stolberg Castle and Wernigerode Castle.
The Harzer Schmalspurbahnen Harz Narrow Gauge Railways , colloquially known as the Harzquerbahn Trans-Harz Railway , a narrow metre -gauge steam and diesel-powered railway network is a very popular mode of transport, especially with tourists. The railways link Wernigerode , Nordhausen , Quedlinburg and the Brocken.
Main line railways serve the major towns around the Harz including Halberstadt , Wernigerode, Thale , Quedlinburg and Nordhausen.