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Johannis possibly as Altentrebgast. Even the district of Altstadt formerly Altenstadt west of the town centre must be older than the town of Bayreuth itself. Even older traces of human presence were found in the hamlets of Meyernberg: While Bayreuth was previously referred to as a villa "village" , the term civitas "town" appeared for the first time in a document published in One can therefore assume that Bayreuth was awarded its town charter between and The town was ruled until by the counts of Andechs-Merania.

After they died out in the burgraves of Nuremberg from the House of Hohenzollern took over the inheritance. Until , however, the princely residence and the centre of the territory was the castle of Plassenburg in Kulmbach and as such the territory was officially known as the Principality of Kulmbach.

The town of Bayreuth developed slowly and was affected time and again by disasters. In February , the Hussites devastated Bayreuth and the town hall and churches were razed. Matthäus Merian described this event in as follows: By , less than ten years after the start of the Reformation , the lords of the Frankish margrave territories switched to the Lutheran faith. In a great fire, caused by negligence, destroyed of the town's houses. In plague broke out and, in , there was another big fire in the town.

The town also suffered during the Thirty Years War. A turning point in the town's history came in when Margrave Christian , the son of the elector, John George of Brandenburg , moved the aristocratic residence from the castle of Plassenburg above Kulmbach to Bayreuth.

The first Hohenzollern palace was built in under Margrave John the Alchemist. It was the forerunner of today's Old Palace Altes Schloss and was expanded and renovated many times. The development of the new capital stagnated due to the Thirty Years' War , but afterwards many famous baroque buildings were added to the town.

After Christian's death in his grandson, Christian Ernest , followed him, ruling from until He was an educated and well-travelled man, whose tutor had been the statesman Joachim Friedrich von Blumenthal. He founded the Christian-Ernestinum Grammar School and, in , participated in the liberation of Vienna which had been besieged by the Turks.

To commemorate this feat, he had the Margrave Fountain built as a monument on which he is depicted as the victor of the Turks; it now stands outside the New Palace Neues Schloss. During this time, the outer ring of the town wall and the castle chapel Schlosskirche were built. His successor, the Crown Prince and later Margrave, George William, began in to establish the then independent town of St Georgen am See today, the district of St Georgen with its castle, the so-called Ordensschloss , a town hall, a prison and a small barrack.

In a princely porcelain factory was established in St. The first 'castle' in the park of the Hermitage was built at this time by Margrave George William — In the town council acquired the palace of Baroness Sponheim today's Old Town Hall or Altes Rathaus as a replacement for the town hall built in in the middle of the market place and destroyed by fire. In a nursing home, the so-called Gravenreuth Stift , was founded by a private foundation in St. The cost of the building exceeded the funds of the foundation, but Margrave Frederick came to their aid.

Bayreuth experienced its Golden Age during the reign — of Margrave Frederick and Margravine Wilhelmina of Bayreuth , the favourite sister of Frederick the Great. During this time, under the direction of court architects, Joseph Saint-Pierre and Carl von Gontard , numerous courtly buildings and attractions were created: There was even a unique version of the rococo architectural style, the so-called Bayreuth Rococo which characterised the aforementioned buildings, especially their interior design.

The old, sombre gatehouses were demolished because they impeded transport and were an outmoded form of defence. The walls were built over in places. Margrave Frederick successfully kept his principality out of the wars being waged by his brother-in-law, Frederick the Great, at this time, and, as a result, brought a time of peace to the Frankish kingdom. The university has remained there to the present today. From to there was also an Academy of Arts and Sciences. Roman Catholics were given the right to set up a prayer room and Jewish families settled here again.

In the synagogue was opened and in the Jewish cemetery was dedicated. Countess Wilhelmina died in and, although, Margrave Frederick married again, the marriage was only short-lived and without issue. After his death in , many artists and craftsmen migrated to Berlin and Potsdam, to work for King Frederick the Great, because Frederick's successor, Margrave Frederick Christian had little understanding of art.

He also lacked the means due to the elaborate lifestyle of his predecessor, because the buildings and the salaries of the mainly foreign artists had swallowed up a lot of money. For example, the court - which under George Frederick Charles had comprised around people - had grown to about employees by the end of the reign of Margrave Frederick.

In Margrave Charles Alexander , from the Ansbach line of Frankish Hohenzollerns, followed the childless Frederick Christian and Bayreuth was reduced to a secondary residence.

Charles Alexander continued to live in Ansbach and rarely came to Bayreuth. Following the abdication of the last Margrave, Charles Alexander, from the principalities of Ansbach and Bayreuth on 2 December its territories became part of a Prussian province. The Prussian Minister Karl August von Hardenberg took over its administration at the beginning of The town centre still possesses the typical structure of a Bavarian street market: The church stood apart from it and on a small hill stood the castle.

Some sixty years later the town at that time a tiny village became subordinate to the Hohenzollern state, and when this state was divided, Bayreuth ended up in the County of Kulmbach. In , the author Jean Paul Richter moved from Coburg to Bayreuth, where he lived until his death in The rule of the Hohenzollerns over the Principality of Kulmbach-Bayreuth ended in after the defeat of Prussia by Napoleonic France. During the French occupation from to Bayreuth was treated as a province of the French Empire and had to pay high war contributions.

It was placed under the administration of Comte Camille de Tournon , who wrote a detailed inventory of the former Principality of Bayreuth. On 30 June the French army handed over the former principality to what was now the Kingdom of Bavaria , which it had bought from Napoleon for 15 million francs. Bayreuth became the capital of the Bavarian district of Mainkreis , which later transferred into Obermainkreis and was finally renamed as the province of Upper Franconia.

Bayreuth was first given a railway connexion in , when the Bayreuth—Neuenmarkt-Wirsberg railway was built at the town's expense. It was followed in by the line to Weiden , in by the railway to Schnabelwaid , in by the branch line to Warmensteinach , in by the branch to Hollfeld and in by the branch via Thurnau to Kulmbach , known as the Thurnauer Bockala which means something like "Thurnau Goat".

On 17 April Richard Wagner visited Bayreuth, because he had read about the Margrave Opera House, whose great stage seemed fitting for his works.

However, the orchestra pit could not accommodate the large number of musicians required, for example, for the Ring of the Nibelung and the ambience of the auditorium seemed inappropriate for his piece. The town supported him in this project and made a piece of land available to him, an undeveloped area outside the town between the railway station and Hohe Warte, the de: Grüner Hügel "Green Hill". At the same time Wagner acquired a property at Hofgarten to build his own house, Wahnfried.

On 22 May the cornerstone for the Festival Hall was laid and, on 13 August , it was officially opened see Bayreuth Festival. Planning and construction were in the hands of the Leipzig architect, Otto Brückwald , who had already made a name for himself in the building of theatres in Leipzig and Altenburg.

Both Liszt and Wagner are buried in Bayreuth; however Wagner did not die there. Rather he died in Venice in , but his family had his body brought to Bayreuth for burial.

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